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  • 1
    Keywords: Production of electric energy or ; Systems engineering ; Electronics ; Power Electronics, Electrical Machines and Networks ; Circuits and Systems ; Energy Systems ; Electronics and Microelectronics, Instrumentation ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Introduction -- A General Control Strategy for DC-DC Series-Parallel Power Conversion Systems -- Mathematical Model of DC-DC ISOP System and Closed-Loop Parameters Design -- Wireless IVS Control Strategies for Input-Series-Connected Systems Based on Positive Output Voltage Gradient Method -- General Control Strategy for DC-AC Inverter Series-Parallel Combined System -- Compound Balanced Control Strategy for Input-Series-Output-Parallel DC-AC Inverter System -- Compound Balanced Control Strategy for Input-Series-Output-Series DC-AC Inverter System -- An Improved Average Current Control Strategy for Input-Parallel-Output-Parallel Inverter System -- Input Voltage Sharing Control Strategy for ISOP Systems under Extreme Load Conditions
    Abstract: Series-parallel conversion systems, in which multiple standardized converter modules are connected in series or parallel at the input and output sides, to meet the demands of various applications. This book focuses on the control strategies for the series-parallel conversion systems with DC-DC converters and DC-AC inverters as the basic modules, respectively, to achieve input voltage/current sharing and output voltage/current sharing among the constituent modules. The detailed theoretical analysis with design examples and experimental validations are presented. This book is essential and valuable reference for graduate students and academics majoring in power electronics and engineers engaged in developing DC-DC converters, DC-AC inverters and power electronics transformers
    Pages: XX, 213 p. 156 illus., 74 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9789811327605
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1436-4646
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science , Mathematics
    Notes: 1 ,...,Am are true, then at least ℓ of the propositions B1,...,Bn are true. The main result of the paper is that the procedure in fact provides a convex hull description.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1440-1703
    Keywords: Light fluctuation ; Microsite ; Miscanthus sinensis ; Photosynthetic photon flux density ; Sunflecks
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Detailed measurements of diurnal variations in photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) were made at seven locations within the canopy of aMiscanthus sinensis grassland to evaluate the light conditions of microsites for heliophilic tree seedlings. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the short-term light fluctuation on a clear day was highly dependent on the wind speed and solar elevation angle, whereas on a cloudy day it was mainly determined by the PPFD incident from above the canopy. The relative PPFD at 40 cm aboveground varied from 0.065 to 0.252, depending on sky conditions and the sensor's position in relation to clumped patches ofM. sinensis. On a clear day, the proportion of PPFD readings above 100 μmol·m−2·s−1 contributed by sunflecks ranged between 25.4% and 82.0%. Computer simulation showed that the contribution of sunflecks to the daily carbon gain ofQuercus serrata seedlings may range from 11% to 65%. The mean relative PPFD measured under diffuse light conditions was linearly related to the daily total PPFD and the daily carbon gain by single leaves ofQ. serrata seedlings. This suggests that the relative PPFD under diffuse light conditions provides an appropriate measure of site-specific light availability within a grass canopy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1440-1703
    Keywords: Grass canopy ; Microsite ; Miscanthus sinensis ; Photosynthetic photon flux density ; Spatial distribution of light
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Spatial variation in photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) was investigated in detail at different heights within the canopy of aMiscanthus sinensis grassland to evaluate the light environment of microsites for establishment of heliophilic tree seedlings. Highly heterogeneous patterns of light distribution were revealed within the apparently uniform grass canopies, especially under direct light. The frequency distribution patterns of relative PPFD (RPFD) were compared among different solar and sky conditions. With increasing height in the canopy, the mean RPFD value and standard deviation (SD) increased, while the skewness and kurtosis of the distribution decreased. The mean RPFD and SD were higher, especially at higher solar elevation angles, under direct light than those under diffuse light conditions. The frequency distribution of RPFD was more platykurtic under direct light and at higher solar elevation angles.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Keywords: Electric organ discharge ; Electric fish ; Androgens
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary 1. Sternopygus macrurus were collected in Venezuela during the period of gonadal recrudescence in early or late dry season. Electric organ discharge (EOD) frequencies were recorded, blood samples were taken for analysis of steroid titers, and gonads were taken for determination of reproductive condition. 2. Mean EOD frequencies were significantly lower in males than in females in all samples. EOD frequency was inversely correlated with body length in males in late, but not early, dry season, and these parameters were never correlated in females. 3. Plasma levels of testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), but not estradiol-17β (E2), were inversely correlated with EOD frequency in males. No 11-KT was observed in plasma of females, and plasma levels of T and E2 in females were comparable to those of males. Neither T nor E2 were correlated with EOD frequency in females. 4. Testes collected in late dry season were more mature than those from early dry season; androgen levels and EOD frequency were correlated with testicular maturity. Ovaries collected in early dry season were immature, while those from late dry season were more mature. There was no relationship between EOD frequency and stage of ovarian development. 5. These results suggest that plasma androgens modulate EOD frequency in males during the reproductive season and that plasma E2 has little relationship to EOD frequency in either sex.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Keywords: Astronotus ocellatus ; Audiogram ; Acoustic ; sensitivity ; Fish ear ; Non-otophysan fish
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Auditory sensitivity was determined for the oscar, Astronotus ocellatus, a cichlid fish that has no known structural specializations to enhance hearing. Trained A. ocellatus behaviorally responded to sound stimuli from 200 Hz to 800 Hz with best sensitivity of 18 dB (re: 1 μbar) to 21 dB for frequencies between 200 and 400 Hz. This is significantly poorer than hearing sensitivity for fish classified as hearing specialists, but well within the range of hearing capabilities reported for non-specialist teleost species.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. ; Stafa-Zurich, Switzerland
    Solid state phenomena Vol. 116-117 (Oct. 2006), p. 275-278 
    ISSN: 1662-9779
    Source: Scientific.Net: Materials Science & Technology / Trans Tech Publications Archiv 1984-2008
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The microstructural evolution of AZ61 semi-solid magnesium alloy during semi-solidremelting process was studied in this paper. The semi-solid billet was fabricated by strain-inducedmelt activation (SIMA) method. The results showed that the initial semi-solid grains melt mainlythrough coalescence. With the prolongation of isothermal holding time, the grains grew up andspheroidized, in which the mean diameter of grain and liquid volume fraction increased. In themeantime, the higher the holding temperature, the faster the grain grew and spheroidized. Thesuitable reheating temperature of AZ61 semi-solid magnesium alloy was 592[removed info]. The samples weresusceptible to serious deformation beyond 597[removed info]
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1662-9779
    Source: Scientific.Net: Materials Science & Technology / Trans Tech Publications Archiv 1984-2008
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: In the process of metal plastic forming severe plastic deformations occur to the workpiece.As a result the constitutive relations between material and geometry are nonlinear. One of the mostcommon tools to solve such problems is the finite element method. In thixoforming processes ofsemi-solid metal many factors affect thixoforming fluidity. Therefore it is important to simplify theproblem and predict the metal flow properties. For that reason the thixoforming process of semi-solidAZ91D magnesium alloy was modeled with the theory of rigid viscoplastic finite element methodusing the commercial finite element software DEFORM-3DTM. The fluid and effective stress-strainfields in the thixoforming process were obtained and the relationships among stress, strain rate andtemperature were analyzed
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. ; Stafa-Zurich, Switzerland
    Solid state phenomena Vol. 141-143 (July 2008), p. 545-549 
    ISSN: 1662-9779
    Source: Scientific.Net: Materials Science & Technology / Trans Tech Publications Archiv 1984-2008
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The microstructural evolution of SiCp/AZ61 composites during partial remelting wasinvestigated. The results indicated that the suitable technological parameters of SiCp/AZ61composites were the reheating temperature of 595°C ~ 600°C and isothermal holding time of30min ~ 60min. The separation of microstructure of AZ61 matrix was faster than that of SiCp/AZ61composites during the initial stage. In the meantime, SiCp/AZ61composites hold high stabilityduring remelting process and a fine semi-solid thixoforming microstructure can be obtained withincreases in temperature and holding time. In addition, the samples of SiCp/AZ61composites weresusceptible to serious deformation and running out above 610°C
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. ; Stafa-Zurich, Switzerland
    Solid state phenomena Vol. 141-143 (July 2008), p. 551-555 
    ISSN: 1662-9779
    Source: Scientific.Net: Materials Science & Technology / Trans Tech Publications Archiv 1984-2008
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: SiCp/AZ61 composites were fabricated by a semi-solid stirring method. The effects ofvolume fraction of SiC particles, stirring temperature and stirring time on the mechanical propertiesof SiCp/AZ61composites were studied with an orthogonal experimental method. The resultsindicate that volume fraction of SiC particles has a remarkable influence on the mechanicalproperties of SiCp/AZ61 composites, the second were stirring time and stirring temperature. In thisexperiment condition, the optimum technological parameters of SiCp/AZ61 composites fabricatedby semi-solid stirring method were volume fraction of SiC particles 6%, stirring temperature 595°Cand stirring time 5 min. Fractographies show that the fracture morphology of SiCp/AZ61composites with volume fraction of SiC particles 6% is brittle
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