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  • 1
    ISSN: 0894-9166
    Keywords: solid-gas coupled model ; methane flowing ; finite element method
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Based on the fundamental theories of the solid deformation and methane flowing, a mathematical model for solid-gas coupled problem on methane flowing is developed. The smoothness and existence of the solution of this model are proved, and the numerical method for solving the present problem is presented.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. Cardiotoxin (CTX) III is a basic polypeptide with 60 amino acid residues isolated from Naja naja atra venom. This is the first report on the mechanism of the anticancer effect of CTX III on human leukaemia K562 cells.2. Cardiotoxin III was found to inhibit the growth of K562 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner, with an IC50 value of 1.7 μg/mL, and displayed several features of apoptosis, including apoptotic body formation, an increase in the sub-G1 population, DNA fragmentation and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage.3. Investigation of the mechanism of CTX III-induced apoptosis revealed that treatment of K562 cells with CTX III resulted in the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release from mitochondria into the cytosol and activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 and the subsequent cleavage of the caspase-3 substrate PARP; however, CTX III did not generate reactive oxygen species (ROS).4. Taken together, the results indicate that CTX III induces apoptosis in K562 cells through an ROS-independent mitochondrial dysfunction pathway.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1520-5126
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 54 (1989), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Stability of mayonnaise prepared from 10% salted egg yolk was decreased by freezing, spray-drying or freeze-drying of the yolk. Storage of salted yolk for 90 days further decreased stability of mayonnaise made from freeze-dried yolk but not that made from frozen spraydried yolk. Stiffness of mayonnaise was increased by pasteurization but stability was increased only at the lesser of two heat treatments. Size of fat globules in the mayonnaise was inversely related to mayonnaise stability.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1520-5126
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 67 (1990), S. 7092-7097 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The effect of different passivation processes, i.e., anodic oxidation and/or photochemical deposition of SiO2 on the current-voltage characteristics of the InSb p+n diodes was studied. By applying different voltages on the gate electrode over the p+n junction periphery, various kinds of current-voltage characteristics can be induced, including multiple negative differential resistance in forward bias. This strongly indicates that the major part of the current, especially the reverse leakage current, flows through the surface of the p+n junction. Tunneling due to field emission from the valence band of the p+ layer into a field-induced inversion layer at the InSb/oxide interface in which the energy levels are quantized is responsible for the multiple negative differential resistance. Reverse leakage current as low as 20 μA/cm2 at −1.1 V for a p+n type diode with n-type doping concentration of 2×1015cm−3 could be easily achieved by applying a gate voltage of −9 V. It is also found that diodes with similar performance can be fabricated by properly adjusting the photochemical vapor deposition passivation process.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1520-5126
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1551-2916
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (Pb1−xLax(Zry,Tiz)O3, PLZT) films containing [00l] preferentially oriented grains were produced successfully on YBa2Cu3O7−x-coated (YBCOcoated) SrTiO3 (STO) or YBCO/CeO2-coated silicon substrates; films containing randomly oriented grains were created on platinum-coated silicon substrates. The latter possessed significantly inferior ferroelectric properties, a fact ascribed to the presence of a paraelectric phase (TiO2) at the PLZT/platinum interface. On the other hand, the PLZT/YBCO/STO films exhibited better electrical properties than did the PLZT/YBCO/CeO2/Si films, and this phenomenon was attributed to better alignment of the grains in normal and in-plane orientations. In terms of fatigue properties, the [00l] textured films that were deposited on YBCO/CeO2/Si substrates possessed substantially superior polarization-switching-cycle endurance versus the randomly oriented films grown on Pt(Ti)/Si substrates. Moreover, the tetragonal films behaved much more satisfactorily than did the rhombohedral PLZT films. The ferroelectric parameters of tetragonal PLZT films showed no significant degradation up to 109 polarization switching cycles, whereas the remnant polarization and coercive force of the rhombohedral PLZT films had already degraded to 80% of their initial values after 108 cycles.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1076-5174
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Ion-molecule reactions occurring in a pentaquadrupole mass spectrometer are used to generate and characterize ions in which one or two pyridine molecules are bound by a +CN cation. Cyanide cation binds strongly to the nitrogen atom of pyridine to generate a mono-adduct, which undergoes pyridine exchange reactions and from which one can generate the dipyridine adduct in low abundance. The dimeric ions have two structures, loosely bound and covalently bound, and both fragment to yield the constituent cyanide-bound monomers. In the case of dimers comprised of meta-substituted alkylpyridines, there is a quantitative correlation between relative cyanide cation affinity, as measured using the kinetic method, and literature values of relative proton affinities. These dimers fragment analogously to the corresponding H+- and Cl+- bound dimers, and on this basis are assigned analogous structures, viz. the loosely bound form Py1—+CN—Py2. Semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations show that both pyridines are bound to the carbon atom of the cyanide cation. Making the assumption that the effective temperatures of the activated cyanide-bound dimers are similar to those of the corresponding Cl+- and H+-bound dimers, relative +CN cation affinities are estimated to be 1.5 kcal mol-1 (3-MePy), 1.7 kcal mol-1 (4-MePy), 2.6 kcal mol-1 (3-EtPy), 3.5 kcal mol-1 (3-n-BuPy) and 3.6 kcal mol-1 (3,5-diMePy), all expressed relative to pyridine (1 kcal = 4.184 kJ). A linear relationship between the relative +CN affinity and relative proton affinity (PA) is derived as Δ +CN affinity (kcal mol-1) = 0.78 (ΔPA), with the assumption that the +CN dimer effective temperature is 600 K. The estimated uncertainty is 0.5 kcal mol-1. Relative +CN affinities of pairs of pyridines are smaller by ca. 1 kcal mol-1 than the corresponding Cl+ affinities. Dimers in which one of the pyridines is meta-chlorine- or para-alkyl-substituted have the covalently bound, ring-carbon-substituted structure, in which the +CN group is attached to the pyridine nitrogen and the second pyridine molecule is bound to a ring carbon. The fragmentation of these isomeric dimers yields the corresponding monomers, in addition to other minor ions, but the distribution of the cyanide cation between the two pyridines does not correlate with Cl+ affinity or proton affinity. In the special cases of the 3-methylpyridine-3-n-butylpyridine and the 4-methylpyridine-pyridine cyanide cation adducts, both the loosely bound dimer and the covalently bound adduct are generated and distinguished by their fragmentation behavior. Evidence for the formation of the covalently bound, ring-carbon-substituted structure was also obtained in semi empirical AMI calculations.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1076-5174
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Ion-molecule reactions in a pentaquadrupole mass spectrometer are used to generate cluster ions in which neutral pyridine molecules are bound to a linear polyatomic cation, [OCNCO]+. The dimeric adduct, viz. Py1[OCNCO]+Py2 where Py1 and Py2 represent substituted pyridines, formed upon reaction of mass-selected [OCNCO]+ with a mixture of pyridines, has a loosely bound structure, as suggested by triple stage mass spectrometric (MS3) experiments. Dimeric adducts comprised of meta- and/or para-substituted pyridines (unhindered pyridines) display an excellent linear correlation between the fragment ion abundance ratio ln [Py1[OCNCO]+/Py2[OCNCO]+] and the proton affinity difference of the pyridines. On the assumption that the effective temperature of the [OCNCO]+ -bound dimers is similar to that of the corresponding Cl+-bound dimers, [OCNCO]+ affinities of the substituted pyridines relative to pyridine are estimated to be 3-MePy 2.3, 4-MePy 3.2, 3-EtPy 3.5, 4-EtPy 4.1, 3,5-diMePy 4.9 and 3,4-diMePy 5.6 kcal mol-1 (1 kcal = 4.184 kJ). A linear relationship between the relative [OCNCO]+ cation affinity and the relative proton affinity (PA) is derived as relative [OCNCO]+ affinity (kcal mol-1) = 0.96 ΔPA, using the assumed effective temperature of 555 K. Dimers consisting of ortho-substituted pyridines display substantial steric effects between the ortho-substituted alkyl group and the central [OCNCO]+ cation. A set of gas-phase steric parameters (Sk) is determined and steric effects are ordered 2-MePy (-1.39) 〈2,5-diMePy (-3.02) 〈 2,4-diMePy (-3.15) 〈 2,3-diMePy ( -3.29) 〈 2,6-diMePy (-5.09) 〈 2,4,6-triMe (-6.13). A greater steric effect is experienced in the [OCNCO]+ system than in the corresponding Cl+ system, owing to the larger central ion in Py[OCNCO]+ Py. Structural and electronic information regarding the bond angles, bond lengths and charge density distributions in [OCNCO]+, Py[OCNCO]+ and Py[OCNCO]Py+ was obtained from ab initio calculations. The calculations show that [OCNCO]+ is linear with high positive charge densities on the carbon atoms. The calculations also reveal that the Py[OCNCO]+ monomer is a planar ion with the nitrogen atom of pyridine bound to a carbon atom of the [OCNCO]+ cation, and that the Py[OCNCO]Py+ dimer is a symmetrical ion in which the nitrogen atoms on the pyridine molecules bind to the carbon atoms of the central cluster ion, [OCNCO]+.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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