Recent studies revealed that acetylation is a widely used protein modification in prokaryotic organisms. The major protein acetylation acetyltransferase YfiQ and the sirtuin-like deacetylase CobB have been found to be involved in basic physiological processes, such as primary metabolism, chemotaxis, and stress responses, in Escherichia coli and Salmonella . However, little is known about protein acetylation modifications in Yersinia pestis , a lethal pathogen responsible for millions of human deaths in three worldwide pandemics. Here we found that Yp_0659 and Yp_1760 of Y. pestis encode the major protein acetylation acetyltransferase YfiQ and the sirtuin-like deacetylase CobB, respectively, which can acetylate and deacetylate PhoP enzymatically in vitro . Protein acetylation impairment in cobB and yfiQ mutants greatly decreased bacterial tolerance to cold, hot, high-salt, and acidic environments. Our comparative transcriptomic data revealed that the strongly decreased tolerance to stress stimuli was probably related to downregulation of the genes encoding the heat shock proteins (HtpG, HslV, HslR, and IbpA), cold shock proteins (CspC and CspA1), and acid resistance proteins (HdeB and AdiA). We found that the reversible acetylation mediated by CobB and YfiQ conferred attenuation of virulence, probably partially due to the decreased expression of the psaABCDEF operon, which encodes Psa fimbriae that play a key role in virulence of Y. pestis . This is the first report, to our knowledge, on the roles of protein acetylation modification in stress responses, biofilm formation, and virulence of Y. pestis .