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  • 1
    ISSN: 1572-817X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Precision etch-depth control is realized by a chemically assisted ion-beam etching system incorporated within situ laser reflectometry. By counting the number of interference fringes, etch-depth control better than a quarter-wave thickness is easily obtained. Optimized etching conditions for highly anisotropic etching of bulk GaAs and AlGaAs/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors are obtained. With the ability to etch-stop just below the active region by thein situ monitoring, InGaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with CW threshold current density as low as 380 A cm-2 with output power 〉11 mW are fabricated. Spatial uniformity is 5% over a 1-cm2 sample, which corresponds to one pair over 20 pairs of quarter-wave stacks of AlGaAs/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1435-1528
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Diese Arbeit stellt einen weiteren Beitrag zu unseren Untersuchungen über den Weissenberg-Effekt dar. Ein Ziel dieser Untersuchungen ist es zu zeigen, wie die Deformation der freien Oberfläche einer zwischen zwei konzentrischen Zylindern gescherten viskoelastischen Flüssigkeit dazu verwendet werden kann, rheologische Kenngrößen der Flüssigkeit zu gewinnen. In dieser Arbeit wird über die Ergebnisse einer experimentellen Untersuchung berichtet, in der die Gestalt der freien Oberfläche bei drei viskoelastischen Flüssigkeiten gemessen wurde, die in einem Apparat geschert wurden, der aus einem stationären Außenzylinder und vier auswechselbaren rotierenden Innenzylindern bestand. Die experimentell bestimmten Profile werden mit solchen verglichen, die aufgrund einer Theorie zweiter Ordnung vorausgesagt worden sind. Man findet im Bereich der Anwendbarkeit dieser Theorie für STP und TLA-227 eine ausgezeichnete Übereinstimmung, wohingegen die Ergebnisse bei einer 2%igen Polyacrylamid-Lösung in einer 1:1-Wasser-Glycerin-Mischung gewisse Diskrepanzen aufweisen.
    Notes: Summary This paper is a further contribution to our work on the Weissenberg effect. One goal of our work is to show how the free-surface deformations on a viscoelastic fluid which is sheared between two concentric rotating cylinders can be used to determine rheological data about the fluid. In this paper we report the results of an experimental program in which free surface shapes have been measured on three viscoelastic fluids undergoing shearing in an apparatus consisting of a stationary outer cylinder and four interchangeable rotating inner cylinders. Experimentally-measured profiles are compared with profiles predicted from second-order theory, and found to be in excellent agreement for STP and TLA-227 in the range of applicability of the second-order theory, but there is some disagreement in the results for a 2% solution of polyacrylamide in 49% water −49% glycerin.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Rheologica acta 28 (1989), S. 13-24 
    ISSN: 1435-1528
    Keywords: One-modeGiesekus model ; mobility parameter ; Weissenberg number ; Couette flow ; Poiseuille flow
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Analytical solutions for the plane Couette flow and the plane Poiseuille flow of the one-mode Giesekus fluid without any retardation time have been obtained by considering the domain of definition for each of the two branch solutions which arise due to the presence of the quadratic stress terms in the constitutive equations. For each fixed value of the mobility parametera, the limiting value of the Weissenberg number for the upper branch solution, i.e., the physically realistic solution is determined in terms of the corresponding dimensionless shear stress for the plane Couette flow and in terms of the corresponding dimensionless pressure gradient for the plane Poiseuille flow. In the case of the plane Couette flow, it is shown that fora falling in the range 0≤a≤1/2 only the physically realistic solution exists while for 1/2〈a ≤1 a nonphysical solution coexists with the realistic one. In the case of the plane Poiseuille flow, it is shown that the non-physical solution cannot even exist around the center plane of the channel, and the effects of the mobility parameter and the dimensionless pressure gradient on the flow variables are investigated. Possible extensions of the present approach to other steady simple shear flows with and without the introduction of the retardation time are also discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: In bacteria, nascent proteins bear the pretranslationally generated N-terminal (Nt) formyl-methionine (fMet) residue. Nt-fMet of bacterial proteins is a degradation signal, termed fMet/N-degron. By contrast, proteins synthesized by cytosolic ribosomes of eukaryotes were presumed to bear unformylated Nt-Met. Here we found that the yeast formyltransferase Fmt1, although imported into mitochondria, could also produce Nt-formylated proteins in the cytosol. Nt-formylated proteins were strongly up-regulated in stationary phase or upon starvation for specific amino acids. This up-regulation strictly required the Gcn2 kinase, which phosphorylates Fmt1 and mediates its retention in the cytosol. We also found that the Nt-fMet residues of Nt-formylated proteins act as fMet/N-degrons and identified the Psh1 ubiquitin ligase as the recognition component of the eukaryotic fMet/N-end rule pathway, which destroys Nt-formylated proteins.
    Keywords: Biochemistry, Cell Biology, Online Only
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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