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  • 1
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  83. Jahresversammlung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Hals-Nasen-Ohren-Heilkunde, Kopf- und Hals-Chirurgie; 20120516-20120520; Mainz; DOC12hnod042 /20120404/
    Publication Date: 2012-04-05
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 2
    Keywords: ANGIOGENESIS ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; SURVIVAL ; CELL ; ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH-FACTOR ; human ; IN-VIVO ; VIVO ; SUPPORT ; DEATH ; GENE ; COMPONENTS ; MOLECULES ; MICE ; recombination ; MOLECULE ; knockout ; MOUSE ; CELL-DEATH ; AGE ; MUTATION ; COMPONENT ; inactivation ; EXTRACELLULAR-MATRIX ; PHENOTYPE ; DEGRADATION ; RECRUITMENT ; BONE-FORMATION ; SKELETAL DEVELOPMENT ; HOMOLOGOUS RECOMBINATION ; LACKING ; MMP ; MATRIX ; DEFICIENCY ; PROGRAM ; VARIANT ; collagen ; MICE LACKING ; II COLLAGEN ; aggrecan ; chondrocyte ; collagenase ; COLLAGENASE CLEAVAGE SITE ; DEVELOPING LONG BONES ; hypertrophic cartilage ; HYPERTROPHIC CHONDROCYTES ; OSTEOARTHRITIC CARTILAGE ; PARATHYROID-HORMONE ; SPONDYLOEPIMETAPHYSEAL DYSPLASIA ; trabecular bone
    Abstract: The assembly and degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules are crucial processes during bone development. In this study, we show that ECM remodeling is a critical rate-limiting step in endochondral bone formation. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 13 (collagenase 3) is poised to play a crucial role in bone formation and remodeling because of its expression both in terminal hypertrophic chondrocytes in the growth plate. p and in osteoblasts. Moreover, a mutation in the human MMP13 gene causes the Missouri variant of spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia. Inactivation of Mmp13 in mice through homologous recombination led to abnormal skeletal growth plate development. Chondrocytes differentiated normally but their exit from the growth plate was delayed. The severity of the Mmp13-null growth plate phenotype increased until about 5 weeks and completely resolved by 12 weeks of age. Mmp13-null mice had increased trabecular bone, which persisted for months. Conditional inactivation of Mmp13 in chondrocytes and osteoblasts showed that increases in trabecular bone occur independently of the improper cartilage ECM degradation caused by Mmp13 deficiency in late hypertrophic chondrocytes. Our studies identified the two major components of the cartilage ECM, collagen type II and aggrecan, as in vivo substrates for MMP13. We found that degradation of cartilage collagen and aggrecan is a coordinated process in which MMP13 works synergistically with MMP9. Mice lacking both MMP13 and MMP9 had severely impaired endochondral bone, characterized by diminished ECM remodeling, prolonged chondrocyte survival, delayed vascular recruitment and defective trabecular bone formation (resulting in drastically shortened bones). These data support the hypothesis that proper ECM remodeling is the dominant rate-limiting process for programmed cell death, angiogenesis and osteoblast recruitment during normal skeletal morphogenesis
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15539485
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  • 3
    Abstract: Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) blockade has been shown to suppress cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling in animal models of pressure overload (POL). This study aims to determine whether MR deficiency in myeloid cells modulates aortic constriction-induced cardiovascular injuries. Myeloid MR knockout (MMRKO) mice and littermate control mice were subjected to abdominal aortic constriction (AAC) or sham operation. We found that AAC-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis were significantly attenuated in MMRKO mice. Expression of genes important in generating reactive oxygen species was decreased in MMRKO mice, while that of manganese superoxide dismutase increased. Furthermore, expression of genes important in cardiac metabolism was increased in MMRKO hearts. Macrophage infiltration in the heart was inhibited and expression of inflammatory genes was decreased in MMRKO mice. In addition, aortic fibrosis and inflammation were attenuated in MMRKO mice. Taken together, our data indicated that MR deficiency in myeloid cells effectively attenuated aortic constriction-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, as well as aortic fibrosis and inflammation.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25354087
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  • 4
    Abstract: Existing respiratory motion-correction methods are applied only to static PET imaging. We have previously developed an event-by-event respiratory motion-correction method with correlations between internal organ motion and external respiratory signals (INTEX). This method is uniquely appropriate for dynamic imaging because it corrects motion for each time point. In this study, we applied INTEX to human dynamic PET studies with various tracers and investigated the impact on kinetic parameter estimation. METHODS: The use of 3 tracers-a myocardial perfusion tracer, (82)Rb (n = 7); a pancreatic beta-cell tracer, (18)F-FP(+)DTBZ (n = 4); and a tumor hypoxia tracer, (18)F-fluoromisonidazole ((18)F-FMISO) (n = 1)-was investigated in a study of 12 human subjects. Both rest and stress studies were performed for (82)Rb. The Anzai belt system was used to record respiratory motion. Three-dimensional internal organ motion in high temporal resolution was calculated by INTEX to guide event-by-event respiratory motion correction of target organs in each dynamic frame. Time-activity curves of regions of interest drawn based on end-expiration PET images were obtained. For (82)Rb studies, K1 was obtained with a 1-tissue model using a left-ventricle input function. Rest-stress myocardial blood flow (MBF) and coronary flow reserve (CFR) were determined. For (18)F-FP(+)DTBZ studies, the total volume of distribution was estimated with arterial input functions using the multilinear analysis 1 method. For the (18)F-FMISO study, the net uptake rate Ki was obtained with a 2-tissue irreversible model using a left-ventricle input function. All parameters were compared with the values derived without motion correction. RESULTS: With INTEX, K1 and MBF increased by 10% +/- 12% and 15% +/- 19%, respectively, for (82)Rb stress studies. CFR increased by 19% +/- 21%. For studies with motion amplitudes greater than 8 mm (n = 3), K1, MBF, and CFR increased by 20% +/- 12%, 30% +/- 20%, and 34% +/- 23%, respectively. For (82)Rb rest studies, INTEX had minimal effect on parameter estimation. The total volume of distribution of (18)F-FP(+)DTBZ and Ki of (18)F-FMISO increased by 17% +/- 6% and 20%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Respiratory motion can have a substantial impact on dynamic PET in the thorax and abdomen. The INTEX method using continuous external motion data substantially changed parameters in kinetic modeling. More accurate estimation is expected with INTEX.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26912437
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  • 5
    Keywords: brain ; CANCER ; INHIBITOR ; PATHWAY ; MICE ; ACTIVATION ; PRIMARY CILIUM ; SHH MEDULLOBLASTOMA ; COUPLED RECEPTORS ; KINASE-A
    Abstract: Medulloblastoma, the most common malignant childhood brain tumor, exhibits distinct molecular subtypes and cellular origins. Genetic alterations driving medulloblastoma initiation and progression remain poorly understood. Herein, we identify GNAS, encoding the G protein Galphas, as a potent tumor suppressor gene that, when expressed at low levels, defines a subset of aggressive Sonic hedgehog (SHH)-driven human medulloblastomas. Ablation of the single Gnas gene in anatomically distinct progenitors in mice is sufficient to induce Shh-associated medulloblastomas, which recapitulate their human counterparts. Galphas is highly enriched at the primary cilium of granule neuron precursors and suppresses Shh signaling by regulating both the cAMP-dependent pathway and ciliary trafficking of Hedgehog pathway components. Elevation in levels of a Galphas effector, cAMP, effectively inhibits tumor cell proliferation and progression in Gnas-ablated mice. Thus, our gain- and loss-of-function studies identify a previously unrecognized tumor suppressor function for Galphas that can be found consistently across Shh-group medulloblastomas of disparate cellular and anatomical origins, highlighting G protein modulation as a potential therapeutic avenue.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25150496
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  • 6
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; DIFFERENTIATION ; T-CELLS ; ALPHA ; inflammation ; ROLES ; MAINTENANCE ; TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR GATA3 ; TYPE-2 IMMUNITY ; HYPERREACTIVITY
    Abstract: Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are often found associated with mucosal surfaces where they contribute to protective immunity, inappropriate allergic responses, and tissue repair. Although we know they develop from a common lymphoid progenitor in the bone marrow (BM), the specific lineage path and transcriptional regulators that are involved are only starting to emerge. After ILC2 gene expression analysis we investigated the role of Bcl11b, a factor previously linked to T cell commitment, in ILC2 development. Using combined Bcl11b-tom and Id2-gfp reporter mice, we show that Bcl11b is expressed in ILC2 precursors in the BM and maintained in mature ILC2s. In vivo deletion of Bcl11b, by conditional tamoxifen-induced depletion or by Bcl11b(-/-) fetal liver chimera reconstitution, demonstrates that ILC2s are wholly dependent on Bcl11b for their development. Notably, in the absence of Bcl11b there is a concomitant expansion of the RORgammat(+) ILC3 population, suggesting that Bcl11b may negatively regulate this lineage. Using Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection, we reveal that the absence of Bcl11b leads to impaired worm expulsion, caused by a deficit in ILC2s, whereas Citrobacter rodentium infection is cleared efficiently. These data clearly establish Bcl11b as a new factor in the differentiation of ILC2s.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25964370
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  • 7
    Keywords: GENE-EXPRESSION ; DIFFERENTIATION ; BREAST-CANCER ; REPRODUCIBILITY ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; SIGNATURE ; RISK STRATIFICATION ; transcriptome ; EXPRESSION-BASED CLASSIFICATION ; NEUROBLASTOMA PATIENTS
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Gene expression profiling is being widely applied in cancer research to identify biomarkers for clinical endpoint prediction. Since RNA-seq provides a powerful tool for transcriptome-based applications beyond the limitations of microarrays, we sought to systematically evaluate the performance of RNA-seq-based and microarray-based classifiers in this MAQC-III/SEQC study for clinical endpoint prediction using neuroblastoma as a model. RESULTS: We generate gene expression profiles from 498 primary neuroblastomas using both RNA-seq and 44 k microarrays. Characterization of the neuroblastoma transcriptome by RNA-seq reveals that more than 48,000 genes and 200,000 transcripts are being expressed in this malignancy. We also find that RNA-seq provides much more detailed information on specific transcript expression patterns in clinico-genetic neuroblastoma subgroups than microarrays. To systematically compare the power of RNA-seq and microarray-based models in predicting clinical endpoints, we divide the cohort randomly into training and validation sets and develop 360 predictive models on six clinical endpoints of varying predictability. Evaluation of factors potentially affecting model performances reveals that prediction accuracies are most strongly influenced by the nature of the clinical endpoint, whereas technological platforms (RNA-seq vs. microarrays), RNA-seq data analysis pipelines, and feature levels (gene vs. transcript vs. exon-junction level) do not significantly affect performances of the models. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that RNA-seq outperforms microarrays in determining the transcriptomic characteristics of cancer, while RNA-seq and microarray-based models perform similarly in clinical endpoint prediction. Our findings may be valuable to guide future studies on the development of gene expression-based predictive models and their implementation in clinical practice.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26109056
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  • 8
    Abstract: The CD20-targeting monoclonal antibody rituximab is an established component of immunochemotherapeutic regimens against B-cell lymphomas, where its coadministration with conventional anticancer agents has significantly improved long-term outcome. However, the cellular mechanisms by which rituximab exerts its antilymphoma activity are only partially understood. We show here that rituximab induces typical features of cellular senescence, a long-term growth arrest of viable cells with distinct biologic properties, in established B-cell lymphoma cell lines as well as primary transformed B cells. In addition, rituximab-based immunotherapy sensitized lymphoma cells to senescence induction by the chemotherapeutic compound adriamycin (a.k.a. doxorubicin), and, to a lesser extent, by the antimicrotubule agent vincristine. Anti-CD20 treatment further enhanced secretion of senescence-associated cytokines, and augmented the DNA damage response signaling cascade triggered by adriamycin. As the underlying prosenescence mechanism, we found intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels to be elevated in response to rituximab, and, in turn, the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine to largely abrogate rituximab-mediated senescence. Our results, further supported by gene set enrichment analyses in a clinical data set of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patient samples exposed to a rituximab-containing treatment regimen, provide important mechanistic insights into the biologic complexity of anti-CD20-evoked tumor responses, and unveil cellular senescence as a hitherto unrecognized effector principle of the antibody component in lymphoma immunochemotherapy. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(5); 1074-81. (c)2016 AACR.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26880268
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  • 9
    Abstract: Cellular senescence is a stress-responsive cell-cycle arrest program that terminates the further expansion of (pre-)malignant cells. Key signalling components of the senescence machinery, such as p16(INK4a), p21(CIP1) and p53, as well as trimethylation of lysine 9 at histone H3 (H3K9me3), also operate as critical regulators of stem-cell functions (which are collectively termed 'stemness'). In cancer cells, a gain of stemness may have profound implications for tumour aggressiveness and clinical outcome. Here we investigated whether chemotherapy-induced senescence could change stem-cell-related properties of malignant cells. Gene expression and functional analyses comparing senescent and non-senescent B-cell lymphomas from Emu-Myc transgenic mice revealed substantial upregulation of an adult tissue stem-cell signature, activated Wnt signalling, and distinct stem-cell markers in senescence. Using genetically switchable models of senescence targeting H3K9me3 or p53 to mimic spontaneous escape from the arrested condition, we found that cells released from senescence re-entered the cell cycle with strongly enhanced and Wnt-dependent clonogenic growth potential compared to virtually identical populations that had been equally exposed to chemotherapy but had never been senescent. In vivo, these previously senescent cells presented with a much higher tumour initiation potential. Notably, the temporary enforcement of senescence in p53-regulatable models of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and acute myeloid leukaemia was found to reprogram non-stem bulk leukaemia cells into self-renewing, leukaemia-initiating stem cells. Our data, which are further supported by consistent results in human cancer cell lines and primary samples of human haematological malignancies, reveal that senescence-associated stemness is an unexpected, cell-autonomous feature that exerts its detrimental, highly aggressive growth potential upon escape from cell-cycle blockade, and is enriched in relapse tumours. These findings have profound implications for cancer therapy, and provide new mechanistic insights into the plasticity of cancer cells.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 29258294
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  • 10
    Abstract: Essentials Human salivary extracellular vesicles (EVs) expose coagulant tissue factor (TF). Salivary EVs expose CD24, a ligand of P-selectin. CD24 and coagulant TF co-localize on salivary EVs. TF(+) /CD24(+) salivary EVs bind to activated platelets and trigger coagulation. SUMMARY: Background Extracellular vesicles (EVs) from human saliva expose coagulant tissue factor (TF). Whether such TF-exposing EVs contribute to hemostasis, however, is unknown. Recently, in a mice model, tumor cell-derived EVs were shown to deliver coagulant TF to activated platelets at a site of vascular injury via interaction between P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and P-selectin. Objectives We hypothesized that salivary EVs may deliver coagulant TF to activated platelets via interaction with P-selectin. Methods We investigated the presence of two ligands of P-selectin on salivary EVs, PSGL-1 and CD24. Results Salivary EVs expose CD24 but PSGL-1 was not detected. Immune depletion of CD24-exposing EVs completely abolished the TF-dependent coagulant activity of cell-free saliva, showing that coagulant TF and CD24 co-localize on salivary EVs. In a whole blood perfusion model, salivary EVs accumulated at the surface of activated platelets and promoted fibrin generation, which was abolished by an inhibitory antibody against human CD24. Conclusions A subset of EVs in human saliva expose coagulant TF and CD24, a ligand of P-selectin, suggesting that such EVs may facilitate hemostasis at a site of skin injury where the wound is licked in a reflex action.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 29658195
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