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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: Oncogenes are activated through well-known chromosomal alterations such as gene fusion, translocation, and focal amplification. In light of recent evidence that the control of key genes depends on chromosome structures called insulated neighborhoods, we investigated whether proto-oncogenes occur within these structures and whether oncogene activation can occur via disruption of insulated neighborhood boundaries in cancer cells. We mapped insulated neighborhoods in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and found that tumor cell genomes contain recurrent microdeletions that eliminate the boundary sites of insulated neighborhoods containing prominent T-ALL proto-oncogenes. Perturbation of such boundaries in nonmalignant cells was sufficient to activate proto-oncogenes. Mutations affecting chromosome neighborhood boundaries were found in many types of cancer. Thus, oncogene activation can occur via genetic alterations that disrupt insulated neighborhoods in malignant cells.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hnisz, Denes -- Weintraub, Abraham S -- Day, Daniel S -- Valton, Anne-Laure -- Bak, Rasmus O -- Li, Charles H -- Goldmann, Johanna -- Lajoie, Bryan R -- Fan, Zi Peng -- Sigova, Alla A -- Reddy, Jessica -- Borges-Rivera, Diego -- Lee, Tong Ihn -- Jaenisch, Rudolf -- Porteus, Matthew H -- Dekker, Job -- Young, Richard A -- AI120766/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- CA109901/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- HG002668/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- MH104610/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- NS088538/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM 112720/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG002668/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG003143/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH104610/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U01 DA 040588/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG007910/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01 R01 AI 117839/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U54 CA193419/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U54 DK107980/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG007010/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 25;351(6280):1454-8. doi: 10.1126/science.aad9024. Epub 2016 Mar 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. ; Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. ; Program in Systems Biology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. ; Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA. ; Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Computational and Systems Biology Program, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. ; Program in Systems Biology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute. ; Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. young@wi.mit.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26940867" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Chromosome Aberrations ; Chromosome Mapping ; *Gene Expression Regulation, Leukemic ; HEK293 Cells ; Humans ; Mutation ; Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/*genetics ; Proto-Oncogenes/*genetics ; *Sequence Deletion ; Transcriptional Activation ; *Translocation, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-01-30
    Description: The "cancerized field" concept posits that cancer-prone cells in a given tissue share an oncogenic mutation, but only discreet clones within the field initiate tumors. Most benign nevi carry oncogenic BRAF(V600E) mutations but rarely become melanoma. The zebrafish crestin gene is expressed embryonically in neural crest progenitors (NCPs) and specifically reexpressed in melanoma. Live imaging of transgenic zebrafish crestin reporters shows that within a cancerized field (BRAF(V600E)-mutant; p53-deficient), a single melanocyte reactivates the NCP state, revealing a fate change at melanoma initiation in this model. NCP transcription factors, including sox10, regulate crestin expression. Forced sox10 overexpression in melanocytes accelerated melanoma formation, which is consistent with activation of NCP genes and super-enhancers leading to melanoma. Our work highlights NCP state reemergence as a key event in melanoma initiation.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kaufman, Charles K -- Mosimann, Christian -- Fan, Zi Peng -- Yang, Song -- Thomas, Andrew J -- Ablain, Julien -- Tan, Justin L -- Fogley, Rachel D -- van Rooijen, Ellen -- Hagedorn, Elliott J -- Ciarlo, Christie -- White, Richard M -- Matos, Dominick A -- Puller, Ann-Christin -- Santoriello, Cristina -- Liao, Eric C -- Young, Richard A -- Zon, Leonard I -- HG002668/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- K08 AR061071/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA103846/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 29;351(6272):aad2197. doi: 10.1126/science.aad2197. Epub 2016 Jan 28.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Stem Cell Program and Division of Hematology/Oncology, Children's Hospital Boston, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Institute of Molecular Life Sciences, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland. ; Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Computational and Systems Biology Program, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. ; Stem Cell Program and Division of Hematology/Oncology, Children's Hospital Boston, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Stem Cell Program and Division of Hematology/Oncology, Children's Hospital Boston, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Stem Cell Program and Division of Hematology/Oncology, Children's Hospital Boston, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Stem Cell Program and Division of Hematology/Oncology, Children's Hospital Boston, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10075, USA. ; Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA. ; Research Institute Children's Cancer Center Hamburg and Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, 20246 Hamburg, Germany. ; Stem Cell Program and Division of Hematology/Oncology, Children's Hospital Boston, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. ; Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Center for Regenerative Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA. ; Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. ; Stem Cell Program and Division of Hematology/Oncology, Children's Hospital Boston, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. zon@enders.tch.harvard.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26823433" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Animals, Genetically Modified ; Carcinogenesis/*genetics ; Embryonic Stem Cells/metabolism ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic ; *Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental ; *Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; Genes, Reporter ; Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics ; Melanocytes/metabolism ; Melanoma/*genetics ; Melanoma, Experimental/*genetics ; Mutation ; Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics ; Neural Crest/*metabolism ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics ; SOXE Transcription Factors/genetics ; Skin Neoplasms/*genetics ; Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics ; *Zebrafish ; Zebrafish Proteins/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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