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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-02-14
    Description: It has been theorized for decades that mitochondria act as the biological clock of ageing, but the evidence is incomplete. Here we show a strong coupling between mitochondrial function and ageing by in vivo visualization of the mitochondrial flash (mitoflash), a frequency-coded optical readout reflecting free-radical production and energy metabolism at the single-mitochondrion level. Mitoflash activity in Caenorhabditis elegans pharyngeal muscles peaked on adult day 3 during active reproduction and on day 9 when animals started to die off. A plethora of genetic mutations and environmental factors inversely modified the lifespan and the day-3 mitoflash frequency. Even within an isogenic population, the day-3 mitoflash frequency was negatively correlated with the lifespan of individual animals. Furthermore, enhanced activity of the glyoxylate cycle contributed to the decreased day-3 mitoflash frequency and the longevity of daf-2 mutant animals. These results demonstrate that the day-3 mitoflash frequency is a powerful predictor of C. elegans lifespan across genetic, environmental and stochastic factors. They also support the notion that the rate of ageing, although adjustable in later life, has been set to a considerable degree before reproduction ceases.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shen, En-Zhi -- Song, Chun-Qing -- Lin, Yuan -- Zhang, Wen-Hong -- Su, Pei-Fang -- Liu, Wen-Yuan -- Zhang, Pan -- Xu, Jiejia -- Lin, Na -- Zhan, Cheng -- Wang, Xianhua -- Shyr, Yu -- Cheng, Heping -- Dong, Meng-Qiu -- England -- Nature. 2014 Apr 3;508(7494):128-32. doi: 10.1038/nature13012. Epub 2014 Feb 12.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094, China [2] National Institute of Biological Sciences, Beijing, Beijing 102206, China [3]. ; 1] State Key Laboratory of Biomembrane and Membrane Biotechnology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Cardiometabolic Molecular Medicine, Institute of Molecular Medicine, Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China [2]. ; National Institute of Biological Sciences, Beijing, Beijing 102206, China. ; Department of Statistics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan. ; State Key Laboratory of Biomembrane and Membrane Biotechnology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Cardiometabolic Molecular Medicine, Institute of Molecular Medicine, Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China. ; Vanderbilt Centre for Quantitative Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24522532" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging/metabolism ; Animals ; Animals, Genetically Modified ; Caenorhabditis elegans/cytology/genetics/*metabolism/physiology ; Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/genetics ; Death ; Energy Metabolism ; Environment ; Glyoxylates/metabolism ; Hermaphroditic Organisms ; *Longevity/genetics/physiology ; Male ; Mitochondria/*metabolism ; Models, Biological ; Muscles/cytology ; Mutation ; Oxidative Stress ; Receptor, Insulin/genetics ; Reproduction ; Stochastic Processes ; Superoxides/analysis/*metabolism ; Time Factors
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-03-14
    Description: Motivation Large-scale molecular data have been increasingly used as an important resource for prognostic prediction of diseases and detection of associated genes. However, standard approaches for omics data analysis ignore the group structure among genes encoded in functional relationships or pathway information. Results We propose new Bayesian hierarchical generalized linear models, called group spike-and-slab lasso GLMs, for predicting disease outcomes and detecting associated genes by incorporating large-scale molecular data and group structures. The proposed model employs a mixture double-exponential prior for coefficients that induces self-adaptive shrinkage amount on different coefficients. The group information is incorporated into the model by setting group-specific parameters. We have developed a fast and stable deterministic algorithm to fit the proposed hierarchal GLMs, which can perform variable selection within groups. We assess the performance of the proposed method on several simulated scenarios, by varying the overlap among groups, group size, number of non-null groups, and the correlation within group. Compared with existing methods, the proposed method provides not only more accurate estimates of the parameters but also better prediction. We further demonstrate the application of the proposed procedure on three cancer datasets by utilizing pathway structures of genes. Our results show that the proposed method generates powerful models for predicting disease outcomes and detecting associated genes. Availability and implementation The methods have been implemented in a freely available R package BhGLM ( http://www.ssg.uab.edu/bhglm/ ). Contact nyi@uab.edu Supplementary information Supplementary dataSupplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
    Print ISSN: 1367-4803
    Electronic ISSN: 1460-2059
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science , Medicine
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-02-16
    Description: Purpose: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. In China, chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains the major risk factor for HCC. In this study, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) among Chinese populations to identify novel genetic loci contributing to susceptibility to HBV-related HCC. Experimental Design: GWAS scan is performed in a collection of 205 HBV-related HCC trios (each trio includes an affected proband and his/her both parents), and 355 chronic HBV carriers with HCC (cases) and 360 chronic HBV carriers without HCC (controls), followed by two rounds of replication studies totally consisting of 3,796 cases and 2,544 controls. Results: We identified a novel association signal within the CDK14 gene at 7q21.13 (index rs10272859, OR = 1.28, P = 9.46 x 10 –10 ). Furthermore, we observed that the at-risk rs10272859[G] allele was significantly associated with higher mRNA expression levels of CDK14 in liver tissues. Chromosome conformation capture assays in liver cells confirmed that a physical interaction exists between the promoter region of CDK14 and the risk-associated SNPs in strong linkage disequilibrium with the index rs10272859 at 7q21.13. This index rs10272859 also showed significant association with the survival of HCC patients. Conclusions: Our findings highlight a novel locus at 7q21.13 conferring both susceptibility and prognosis to HBV-related HCC, and suggest the CDK14 gene to be the functional target of the 7q21.13 locus. Clin Cancer Res; 24(4); 906–15. ©2017 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-03-28
    Description: In high tuberculosis (TB)-burden countries such as China, the diagnosis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) using conventional drug susceptibility testing (DST) takes months, making treatment delay inevitable. Poor outcomes of MDR-TB might be associated with delayed, even inappropriate, treatment. The purposes of this study were to investigate the time to MDR-TB treatment initiation and to assess the association between early treatment and treatment outcomes. Between April 2011 and December 2014, this population-based retrospective cohort study collected the demographic and clinical characteristics and the drug susceptibility profiles of all registered MDR-TB patients in Shanghai, China. The dates of TB and MDR-TB diagnoses, DST performance, and treatment initiation were extracted to calculate the times to treatment. In total, 284 of 346 MDR-TB patients were eligible for analysis, and 68.3% (194/284) had favored outcomes. The median time to treatment initiation from TB diagnosis was 172 days among those with favored outcomes and 190 days among those with poor outcomes. Treatments initiated within 60 days after performing DST (odds ratio [OR], 2.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22 to 5.36) and empirical treatments (OR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.01 to 4.32) were positively associated with favored outcomes. Substantial delays to MDR-TB treatment were observed when conventional DST was used. Early treatment predicted favored outcomes. Rapid diagnostic methods should be scaled up and improvements should be made in patient management and information linkage to reduce treatment delay.
    Print ISSN: 0066-4804
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-6596
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Description: The ultrafast laser excitation of matters leads to nonequilibrium states with complex solid-liquid phase-transition dynamics. We used electron diffraction at mega–electron volt energies to visualize the ultrafast melting of gold on the atomic scale length. For energy densities approaching the irreversible melting regime, we first observed heterogeneous melting on time scales of 100 to 1000 picoseconds, transitioning to homogeneous melting that occurs catastrophically within 10 to 20 picoseconds at higher energy densities. We showed evidence for the heterogeneous coexistence of solid and liquid. We determined the ion and electron temperature evolution and found superheated conditions. Our results constrain the electron-ion coupling rate, determine the Debye temperature, and reveal the melting sensitivity to nucleation seeds.
    Keywords: Physics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-03-15
    Description: Vaccine-elicited humoral immune responses comprise an array of antibody forms and specificities, with only a fraction contributing to protective host immunity. Elucidation of antibody effector functions responsible for protective immunity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition is a major goal for the HIV-1 vaccine field. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is an important part of the host defense against pathogens; however, little is known about the role of vaccine-elicited IgA and its capacity to mediate antiviral functions. To identify the antiviral functions of HIV-1-specific IgA elicited by vaccination, we cloned HIV-1 envelope-specific IgA monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) by memory B cell cultures from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from an RV144 vaccinee and produced two IgA clonal cell lines (HG129 and HG130) producing native, nonrecombinant IgA MAbs. The HG129 and HG130 MAbs mediated phagocytosis by monocytes, and HG129 blocked HIV-1 Env glycoprotein binding to galactosylceramide, an alternative HIV-1 receptor. These findings elucidate potential antiviral functions of vaccine-elicited HIV-1 envelope-specific IgA that may act to block HIV-1 acquisition at the portal of entry by preventing HIV-1 binding to galactosylceramide and mediating antibody Fc receptor-mediated virion phagocytosis. Furthermore, these findings highlight the complex and diverse interactions of vaccine-elicited IgA with pathogens that depend on IgA fine specificity and form (e.g., multimeric or monomeric) in the systemic circulation and mucosal compartments. IMPORTANCE Host-pathogen interactions in vivo involve numerous immune mechanisms that can lead to pathogen clearance. Understanding the nature of antiviral immune mechanisms can inform the design of efficacious HIV-1 vaccine strategies. Evidence suggests that both neutralizing and nonneutralizing antibodies can mediate some protection against HIV in animal models. Although numerous studies have characterized the functional properties of HIV-1-specific IgG, more studies are needed on the functional attributes of HIV-1-specific IgA, specifically for vaccine-elicited IgA. Characterization of the functional properties of HIV-1 Env-specific IgA monoclonal antibodies from human vaccine clinical trials are critical toward understanding the capacity of the host immune response to block HIV-1 acquisition.
    Print ISSN: 0022-538X
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5514
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-02-28
    Description: Sirtuins can promote deacetylation of a wide range of substrates in diverse cellular compartments and regulate many cellular processes(1),(2). Recently Narayan et al., reported that SIRT2 was required for necroptosis based on their findings that SIRT2 inhibition, knock-down or knock-out prevented necroptosis. We sought to confirm and explore the role of SIRT2 in necroptosis and tested four different sources of the SIRT2 inhibitor AGK2, three independent siRNAs against SIRT2, and cells from two independently generated Sirt2-/- mouse strains, however we were unable to show that inhibiting or depleting SIRT2 protected cells from necroptosis. Furthermore, Sirt2-/- mice succumbed to TNF induced Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) more rapidly than wild type mice while Ripk3-/- mice were resistant. Our results therefore question the importance of SIRT2 in the necroptosis cell death pathway.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4005920/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4005920/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Newton, Kim -- Hildebrand, Joanne M -- Shen, Zhirong -- Rodriguez, Diego -- Alvarez-Diaz, Silvia -- Petersen, Sean -- Shah, Saumil -- Dugger, Debra L -- Huang, Chunzi -- Auwerx, Johan -- Vandenabeele, Peter -- Green, Douglas R -- Ashkenazi, Avi -- Dixit, Vishva M -- Kaiser, William J -- Strasser, Andreas -- Degterev, Alexei -- Silke, John -- P30 CA021765/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI044828/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA169291/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Feb 27;506(7489):E4-6. doi: 10.1038/nature13024.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, California 94080, USA. ; 1] The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia [2] Department of Medical Biology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3050, Australia. ; National Institute of Biological Sciences, Zhongguancun Life Science Park, Beijing 102206, China. ; Department of Immunology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA. ; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory Vaccine Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA. ; Laboratory of Integrative and Systems Physiology, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. ; 1] Molecular Signaling and Cell Death Unit, Inflammation Research Center, VIB, 9052 Gent, Belgium [2] Department of Biomedical Molecular Biology, Ghent University, 9052 Gent, Belgium [3] Methusalem BOF09/01M00709, Ghent University, 9052 Gent, Belgium.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24572428" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Female ; Humans ; Male ; Necrosis/*enzymology ; Sirtuin 2/*genetics/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-11-19
    Description: The end-Permian mass extinction was the most severe biodiversity crisis in Earth history. To better constrain the timing, and ultimately the causes of this event, we collected a suite of geochronologic, isotopic, and biostratigraphic data on several well-preserved sedimentary sections in South China. High-precision U-Pb dating reveals that the extinction peak occurred just before 252.28 +/- 0.08 million years ago, after a decline of 2 per mil ( per thousand) in delta(13)C over 90,000 years, and coincided with a delta(13)C excursion of -5 per thousand that is estimated to have lasted 〈/=20,000 years. The extinction interval was less than 200,000 years and synchronous in marine and terrestrial realms; associated charcoal-rich and soot-bearing layers indicate widespread wildfires on land. A massive release of thermogenic carbon dioxide and/or methane may have caused the catastrophic extinction.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shen, Shu-zhong -- Crowley, James L -- Wang, Yue -- Bowring, Samuel A -- Erwin, Douglas H -- Sadler, Peter M -- Cao, Chang-qun -- Rothman, Daniel H -- Henderson, Charles M -- Ramezani, Jahandar -- Zhang, Hua -- Shen, Yanan -- Wang, Xiang-dong -- Wang, Wei -- Mu, Lin -- Li, Wen-zhong -- Tang, Yue-gang -- Liu, Xiao-lei -- Liu, Lu-jun -- Zeng, Yong -- Jiang, Yao-fa -- Jin, Yu-gan -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Dec 9;334(6061):1367-72. doi: 10.1126/science.1213454. Epub 2011 Nov 17.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Nanjing 210008, China. szshen@nigpas.ac.cn〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22096103" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biodiversity ; Carbon Dioxide ; Carbon Isotopes ; China ; *Ecosystem ; *Extinction, Biological ; Fires ; *Fossils ; Geologic Sediments ; Invertebrates/classification ; Isotopes ; Lead ; Mass Spectrometry ; Methane ; Oceans and Seas ; Plants/classification ; Radioisotope Dilution Technique ; Radiometric Dating ; Seawater/chemistry ; Time ; Uranium ; Vertebrates/classification
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2012-09-01
    Description: Ethylene gas is essential for many developmental processes and stress responses in plants. ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE2 (EIN2), an NRAMP-like integral membrane protein, plays an essential role in ethylene signaling, but its function remains enigmatic. Here we report that phosphorylation-regulated proteolytic processing of EIN2 triggers its endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-nucleus translocation. ER-tethered EIN2 shows CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1 (CTR1) kinase-dependent phosphorylation. Ethylene triggers dephosphorylation at several sites and proteolytic cleavage at one of these sites, resulting in nuclear translocation of a carboxyl-terminal EIN2 fragment (EIN2-C'). Mutations that mimic EIN2 dephosphorylation, or inactivate CTR1, show constitutive cleavage and nuclear localization of EIN2-C' and EIN3 and EIN3-LIKE1-dependent activation of ethylene responses. These findings uncover a mechanism of subcellular communication whereby ethylene stimulates phosphorylation-dependent cleavage and nuclear movement of the EIN2-C' peptide, linking hormone perception and signaling components in the ER with nuclear-localized transcriptional regulators.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3523706/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3523706/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Qiao, Hong -- Shen, Zhouxin -- Huang, Shao-shan Carol -- Schmitz, Robert J -- Urich, Mark A -- Briggs, Steven P -- Ecker, Joseph R -- F32 HG004830/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- F32-HG004830/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Oct 19;338(6105):390-3. doi: 10.1126/science.1225974. Epub 2012 Aug 30.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Plant Biology Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22936567" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Active Transport, Cell Nucleus ; Arabidopsis/drug effects/*metabolism ; Arabidopsis Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Cell Nucleus/*metabolism ; Endoplasmic Reticulum/*metabolism ; Ethylenes/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Gases/metabolism/pharmacology ; Mutation ; Nuclear Localization Signals/genetics/metabolism ; Phosphorylation ; Protein Kinases/metabolism ; Proteolysis ; Receptors, Cell Surface/genetics/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-03-18
    Description: Knowledge of the contribution that individual countries have made to global radiative forcing is important to the implementation of the agreement on "common but differentiated responsibilities" reached by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Over the past three decades, China has experienced rapid economic development, accompanied by increased emission of greenhouse gases, ozone precursors and aerosols, but the magnitude of the associated radiative forcing has remained unclear. Here we use a global coupled biogeochemistry-climate model and a chemistry and transport model to quantify China's present-day contribution to global radiative forcing due to well-mixed greenhouse gases, short-lived atmospheric climate forcers and land-use-induced regional surface albedo changes. We find that China contributes 10% +/- 4% of the current global radiative forcing. China's relative contribution to the positive (warming) component of global radiative forcing, mainly induced by well-mixed greenhouse gases and black carbon aerosols, is 12% +/- 2%. Its relative contribution to the negative (cooling) component is 15% +/- 6%, dominated by the effect of sulfate and nitrate aerosols. China's strongest contributions are 0.16 +/- 0.02 watts per square metre for CO2 from fossil fuel burning, 0.13 +/- 0.05 watts per square metre for CH4, -0.11 +/- 0.05 watts per square metre for sulfate aerosols, and 0.09 +/- 0.06 watts per square metre for black carbon aerosols. China's eventual goal of improving air quality will result in changes in radiative forcing in the coming years: a reduction of sulfur dioxide emissions would drive a faster future warming, unless offset by larger reductions of radiative forcing from well-mixed greenhouse gases and black carbon.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Li, Bengang -- Gasser, Thomas -- Ciais, Philippe -- Piao, Shilong -- Tao, Shu -- Balkanski, Yves -- Hauglustaine, Didier -- Boisier, Juan-Pablo -- Chen, Zhuo -- Huang, Mengtian -- Li, Laurent Zhaoxin -- Li, Yue -- Liu, Hongyan -- Liu, Junfeng -- Peng, Shushi -- Shen, Zehao -- Sun, Zhenzhong -- Wang, Rong -- Wang, Tao -- Yin, Guodong -- Yin, Yi -- Zeng, Hui -- Zeng, Zhenzhong -- Zhou, Feng -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 17;531(7594):357-61. doi: 10.1038/nature17165.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Sino-French Institute for Earth System Science, Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China. ; Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing, 210023, China. ; Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France. ; Centre International de Recherche en Environnement et Developpement, CNRS-PontsParisTech-EHESS-AgroParisTech-CIRAD, 94736 Nogent-sur-Marne, France. ; Key Laboratory of Alpine Ecology and Biodiversity, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Center for Excellence in Tibetan Earth Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China. ; Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, 75252 Paris, France.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26983540" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aerosols/analysis/chemistry ; Air Pollution/*analysis ; Atmosphere/*chemistry ; Carbon Dioxide/analysis ; China ; Fossil Fuels ; *Greenhouse Effect ; Methane/analysis ; Soot/analysis ; Sulfates/analysis ; Sulfur Dioxide/analysis ; Uncertainty
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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