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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-08-13
    Description: Multiple sclerosis is a common disease of the central nervous system in which the interplay between inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes typically results in intermittent neurological disturbance followed by progressive accumulation of disability. Epidemiological studies have shown that genetic factors are primarily responsible for the substantially increased frequency of the disease seen in the relatives of affected individuals, and systematic attempts to identify linkage in multiplex families have confirmed that variation within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) exerts the greatest individual effect on risk. Modestly powered genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have enabled more than 20 additional risk loci to be identified and have shown that multiple variants exerting modest individual effects have a key role in disease susceptibility. Most of the genetic architecture underlying susceptibility to the disease remains to be defined and is anticipated to require the analysis of sample sizes that are beyond the numbers currently available to individual research groups. In a collaborative GWAS involving 9,772 cases of European descent collected by 23 research groups working in 15 different countries, we have replicated almost all of the previously suggested associations and identified at least a further 29 novel susceptibility loci. Within the MHC we have refined the identity of the HLA-DRB1 risk alleles and confirmed that variation in the HLA-A gene underlies the independent protective effect attributable to the class I region. Immunologically relevant genes are significantly overrepresented among those mapping close to the identified loci and particularly implicate T-helper-cell differentiation in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3182531/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3182531/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉International Multiple Sclerosis Genetics Consortium -- Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 2 -- Sawcer, Stephen -- Hellenthal, Garrett -- Pirinen, Matti -- Spencer, Chris C A -- Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A -- Moutsianas, Loukas -- Dilthey, Alexander -- Su, Zhan -- Freeman, Colin -- Hunt, Sarah E -- Edkins, Sarah -- Gray, Emma -- Booth, David R -- Potter, Simon C -- Goris, An -- Band, Gavin -- Oturai, Annette Bang -- Strange, Amy -- Saarela, Janna -- Bellenguez, Celine -- Fontaine, Bertrand -- Gillman, Matthew -- Hemmer, Bernhard -- Gwilliam, Rhian -- Zipp, Frauke -- Jayakumar, Alagurevathi -- Martin, Roland -- Leslie, Stephen -- Hawkins, Stanley -- Giannoulatou, Eleni -- D'alfonso, Sandra -- Blackburn, Hannah -- Martinelli Boneschi, Filippo -- Liddle, Jennifer -- Harbo, Hanne F -- Perez, Marc L -- Spurkland, Anne -- Waller, Matthew J -- Mycko, Marcin P -- Ricketts, Michelle -- Comabella, Manuel -- Hammond, Naomi -- Kockum, Ingrid -- McCann, Owen T -- Ban, Maria -- Whittaker, Pamela -- Kemppinen, Anu -- Weston, Paul -- Hawkins, Clive -- Widaa, Sara -- Zajicek, John -- Dronov, Serge -- Robertson, Neil -- Bumpstead, Suzannah J -- Barcellos, Lisa F -- Ravindrarajah, Rathi -- Abraham, Roby -- Alfredsson, Lars -- Ardlie, Kristin -- Aubin, Cristin -- Baker, Amie -- Baker, Katharine -- Baranzini, Sergio E -- Bergamaschi, Laura -- Bergamaschi, Roberto -- Bernstein, Allan -- Berthele, Achim -- Boggild, Mike -- Bradfield, Jonathan P -- Brassat, David -- Broadley, Simon A -- Buck, Dorothea -- Butzkueven, Helmut -- Capra, Ruggero -- Carroll, William M -- Cavalla, Paola -- Celius, Elisabeth G -- Cepok, Sabine -- Chiavacci, Rosetta -- Clerget-Darpoux, Francoise -- Clysters, Katleen -- Comi, Giancarlo -- Cossburn, Mark -- Cournu-Rebeix, Isabelle -- Cox, Mathew B -- Cozen, Wendy -- Cree, Bruce A C -- Cross, Anne H -- Cusi, Daniele -- Daly, Mark J -- Davis, Emma -- de Bakker, Paul I W -- Debouverie, Marc -- D'hooghe, Marie Beatrice -- Dixon, Katherine -- Dobosi, Rita -- Dubois, Benedicte -- Ellinghaus, David -- Elovaara, Irina -- Esposito, Federica -- Fontenille, Claire -- Foote, Simon -- Franke, Andre -- Galimberti, Daniela -- Ghezzi, Angelo -- Glessner, Joseph -- Gomez, Refujia -- Gout, Olivier -- Graham, Colin -- Grant, Struan F A -- Guerini, Franca Rosa -- Hakonarson, Hakon -- Hall, Per -- Hamsten, Anders -- Hartung, Hans-Peter -- Heard, Rob N -- Heath, Simon -- Hobart, Jeremy -- Hoshi, Muna -- Infante-Duarte, Carmen -- Ingram, Gillian -- Ingram, Wendy -- Islam, Talat -- Jagodic, Maja -- Kabesch, Michael -- Kermode, Allan G -- Kilpatrick, Trevor J -- Kim, Cecilia -- Klopp, Norman -- Koivisto, Keijo -- Larsson, Malin -- Lathrop, Mark -- Lechner-Scott, Jeannette S -- Leone, Maurizio A -- Leppa, Virpi -- Liljedahl, Ulrika -- Bomfim, Izaura Lima -- Lincoln, Robin R -- Link, Jenny -- Liu, Jianjun -- Lorentzen, Aslaug R -- Lupoli, Sara -- Macciardi, Fabio -- Mack, Thomas -- Marriott, Mark -- Martinelli, Vittorio -- Mason, Deborah -- McCauley, Jacob L -- Mentch, Frank -- Mero, Inger-Lise -- Mihalova, Tania -- Montalban, Xavier -- Mottershead, John -- Myhr, Kjell-Morten -- Naldi, Paola -- Ollier, William -- Page, Alison -- Palotie, Aarno -- Pelletier, Jean -- Piccio, Laura -- Pickersgill, Trevor -- Piehl, Fredrik -- Pobywajlo, Susan -- Quach, Hong L -- Ramsay, Patricia P -- Reunanen, Mauri -- Reynolds, Richard -- Rioux, John D -- Rodegher, Mariaemma -- Roesner, Sabine -- Rubio, Justin P -- Ruckert, Ina-Maria -- Salvetti, Marco -- Salvi, Erika -- Santaniello, Adam -- Schaefer, Catherine A -- Schreiber, Stefan -- Schulze, Christian -- Scott, Rodney J -- Sellebjerg, Finn -- Selmaj, Krzysztof W -- Sexton, David -- Shen, Ling -- Simms-Acuna, Brigid -- Skidmore, Sheila -- Sleiman, Patrick M A -- Smestad, Cathrine -- Sorensen, Per Soelberg -- Sondergaard, Helle Bach -- Stankovich, Jim -- Strange, Richard C -- Sulonen, Anna-Maija -- Sundqvist, Emilie -- Syvanen, Ann-Christine -- Taddeo, Francesca -- Taylor, Bruce -- Blackwell, Jenefer M -- Tienari, Pentti -- Bramon, Elvira -- Tourbah, Ayman -- Brown, Matthew A -- Tronczynska, Ewa -- Casas, Juan P -- Tubridy, Niall -- Corvin, Aiden -- Vickery, Jane -- Jankowski, Janusz -- Villoslada, Pablo -- Markus, Hugh S -- Wang, Kai -- Mathew, Christopher G -- Wason, James -- Palmer, Colin N A -- Wichmann, H-Erich -- Plomin, Robert -- Willoughby, Ernest -- Rautanen, Anna -- Winkelmann, Juliane -- Wittig, Michael -- Trembath, Richard C -- Yaouanq, Jacqueline -- Viswanathan, Ananth C -- Zhang, Haitao -- Wood, Nicholas W -- Zuvich, Rebecca -- Deloukas, Panos -- Langford, Cordelia -- Duncanson, Audrey -- Oksenberg, Jorge R -- Pericak-Vance, Margaret A -- Haines, Jonathan L -- Olsson, Tomas -- Hillert, Jan -- Ivinson, Adrian J -- De Jager, Philip L -- Peltonen, Leena -- Stewart, Graeme J -- Hafler, David A -- Hauser, Stephen L -- McVean, Gil -- Donnelly, Peter -- Compston, Alastair -- 068545/Z/02/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 075491/Z/04/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 084702/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 085475/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 085475/B/08/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 085475/Z/08/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 090532/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 898/Multiple Sclerosis Society/United Kingdom -- AI076544/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- CA104021/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- G0100594/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0400017/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0700061/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0901310/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0901461/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G19/2/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- K23N/S048869/PHS HHS/ -- NS032830/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS049477/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS049510/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS067305/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS19142/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS26799/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS43559/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- PDA/02/06/016/Department of Health/United Kingdom -- R01 NS026799/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS049477/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS049477-06A1/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- RR020092/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- RR024992/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR000448/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2011 Aug 10;476(7359):214-9. doi: 10.1038/nature10251.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21833088" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alleles ; Cell Differentiation/immunology ; Europe/ethnology ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics ; Genome, Human/genetics ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; HLA-A Antigens/genetics ; HLA-DR Antigens/genetics ; HLA-DRB1 Chains ; Humans ; Immunity, Cellular/genetics/*immunology ; Major Histocompatibility Complex/genetics ; Multiple Sclerosis/*genetics/*immunology ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Sample Size ; T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/cytology/immunology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-07-23
    Description: The human lens is comprised largely of crystallin proteins assembled into a highly ordered, interactive macro-structure essential for lens transparency and refractive index. Any disruption of intra- or inter-protein interactions will alter this delicate structure, exposing hydrophobic surfaces, with consequent protein aggregation and cataract formation. Cataracts are the most common cause of blindness worldwide, affecting tens of millions of people, and currently the only treatment is surgical removal of cataractous lenses. The precise mechanisms by which lens proteins both prevent aggregation and maintain lens transparency are largely unknown. Lanosterol is an amphipathic molecule enriched in the lens. It is synthesized by lanosterol synthase (LSS) in a key cyclization reaction of a cholesterol synthesis pathway. Here we identify two distinct homozygous LSS missense mutations (W581R and G588S) in two families with extensive congenital cataracts. Both of these mutations affect highly conserved amino acid residues and impair key catalytic functions of LSS. Engineered expression of wild-type, but not mutant, LSS prevents intracellular protein aggregation of various cataract-causing mutant crystallins. Treatment by lanosterol, but not cholesterol, significantly decreased preformed protein aggregates both in vitro and in cell-transfection experiments. We further show that lanosterol treatment could reduce cataract severity and increase transparency in dissected rabbit cataractous lenses in vitro and cataract severity in vivo in dogs. Our study identifies lanosterol as a key molecule in the prevention of lens protein aggregation and points to a novel strategy for cataract prevention and treatment.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhao, Ling -- Chen, Xiang-Jun -- Zhu, Jie -- Xi, Yi-Bo -- Yang, Xu -- Hu, Li-Dan -- Ouyang, Hong -- Patel, Sherrina H -- Jin, Xin -- Lin, Danni -- Wu, Frances -- Flagg, Ken -- Cai, Huimin -- Li, Gen -- Cao, Guiqun -- Lin, Ying -- Chen, Daniel -- Wen, Cindy -- Chung, Christopher -- Wang, Yandong -- Qiu, Austin -- Yeh, Emily -- Wang, Wenqiu -- Hu, Xun -- Grob, Seanna -- Abagyan, Ruben -- Su, Zhiguang -- Tjondro, Harry Christianto -- Zhao, Xi-Juan -- Luo, Hongrong -- Hou, Rui -- Perry, J Jefferson P -- Gao, Weiwei -- Kozak, Igor -- Granet, David -- Li, Yingrui -- Sun, Xiaodong -- Wang, Jun -- Zhang, Liangfang -- Liu, Yizhi -- Yan, Yong-Bin -- Zhang, Kang -- England -- Nature. 2015 Jul 30;523(7562):607-11. doi: 10.1038/nature14650. Epub 2015 Jul 22.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Molecular Medicine Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China [2] State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510060, China [3] Department of Ophthalmology and Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Institute for Engineering in Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; State Key Laboratory of Membrane Biology, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. ; 1] Department of Ophthalmology and Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Institute for Engineering in Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA [2] Department of Ophthalmology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, China. ; BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518083, China. ; 1] State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510060, China [2] Department of Ophthalmology and Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Institute for Engineering in Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; Department of Ophthalmology and Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Institute for Engineering in Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; 1] Molecular Medicine Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China [2] Guangzhou KangRui Biological Pharmaceutical Technology Company, Guangzhou 510005, China. ; Molecular Medicine Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China. ; State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510060, China. ; 1] Department of Ophthalmology and Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Institute for Engineering in Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA [2] CapitalBio Genomics Co., Ltd., Dongguan 523808, China. ; 1] Department of Ophthalmology and Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Institute for Engineering in Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA [2] Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai First People's Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai JiaoTong University, Shanghai 20080, China. ; Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; Guangzhou KangRui Biological Pharmaceutical Technology Company, Guangzhou 510005, China. ; Department of Biochemistry, University of California Riverside, Riverside, California 92521, USA. ; 1] Department of Ophthalmology and Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Institute for Engineering in Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA [2] Department of Nanoengineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. ; Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai First People's Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai JiaoTong University, Shanghai 20080, China. ; Department of Ophthalmology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, China. ; 1] Molecular Medicine Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China [2] State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510060, China [3] Department of Ophthalmology and Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Institute for Engineering in Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA [4] Department of Nanoengineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA [5] Veterans Administration Healthcare System, San Diego, California 92093, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26200341" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Amyloid/chemistry/drug effects/metabolism/ultrastructure ; Animals ; Base Sequence ; Cataract/congenital/*drug therapy/genetics/*metabolism/pathology ; Cell Line ; Child ; Crystallins/chemistry/genetics/metabolism/ultrastructure ; Dogs ; Female ; Humans ; Lanosterol/administration & dosage/*pharmacology/*therapeutic use ; Lens, Crystalline/drug effects/metabolism/pathology ; Male ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutant Proteins/chemistry/genetics/metabolism/ultrastructure ; Pedigree ; Protein Aggregates/*drug effects ; Protein Aggregation, Pathological/*drug therapy/pathology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2012-06-23
    Description: Malaria elimination strategies require surveillance of the parasite population for genetic changes that demand a public health response, such as new forms of drug resistance. Here we describe methods for the large-scale analysis of genetic variation in Plasmodium falciparum by deep sequencing of parasite DNA obtained from the blood of patients with malaria, either directly or after short-term culture. Analysis of 86,158 exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms that passed genotyping quality control in 227 samples from Africa, Asia and Oceania provides genome-wide estimates of allele frequency distribution, population structure and linkage disequilibrium. By comparing the genetic diversity of individual infections with that of the local parasite population, we derive a metric of within-host diversity that is related to the level of inbreeding in the population. An open-access web application has been established for the exploration of regional differences in allele frequency and of highly differentiated loci in the P. falciparum genome.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3738909/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3738909/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Manske, Magnus -- Miotto, Olivo -- Campino, Susana -- Auburn, Sarah -- Almagro-Garcia, Jacob -- Maslen, Gareth -- O'Brien, Jack -- Djimde, Abdoulaye -- Doumbo, Ogobara -- Zongo, Issaka -- Ouedraogo, Jean-Bosco -- Michon, Pascal -- Mueller, Ivo -- Siba, Peter -- Nzila, Alexis -- Borrmann, Steffen -- Kiara, Steven M -- Marsh, Kevin -- Jiang, Hongying -- Su, Xin-Zhuan -- Amaratunga, Chanaki -- Fairhurst, Rick -- Socheat, Duong -- Nosten, Francois -- Imwong, Mallika -- White, Nicholas J -- Sanders, Mandy -- Anastasi, Elisa -- Alcock, Dan -- Drury, Eleanor -- Oyola, Samuel -- Quail, Michael A -- Turner, Daniel J -- Ruano-Rubio, Valentin -- Jyothi, Dushyanth -- Amenga-Etego, Lucas -- Hubbart, Christina -- Jeffreys, Anna -- Rowlands, Kate -- Sutherland, Colin -- Roper, Cally -- Mangano, Valentina -- Modiano, David -- Tan, John C -- Ferdig, Michael T -- Amambua-Ngwa, Alfred -- Conway, David J -- Takala-Harrison, Shannon -- Plowe, Christopher V -- Rayner, Julian C -- Rockett, Kirk A -- Clark, Taane G -- Newbold, Chris I -- Berriman, Matthew -- MacInnis, Bronwyn -- Kwiatkowski, Dominic P -- 075491/Z/04/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 077012/Z/05/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 082370/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 089275/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 090532/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 090532/Z/09/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 090770/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 090770/Z/09/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 092654/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 093956/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 098051/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 55005502/Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- G0600718/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G19/9/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Jul 19;487(7407):375-9. doi: 10.1038/nature11174.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22722859" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alleles ; *Biodiversity ; Genome, Protozoan ; Genotype ; *High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing ; Humans ; Malaria, Falciparum/*parasitology ; Phylogeny ; Plasmodium falciparum/classification/*genetics ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Principal Component Analysis
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-10-20
    Description: Quantum teleportation, which is the transfer of an unknown quantum state from one station to another over a certain distance with the help of nonlocal entanglement shared by a sender and a receiver, has been widely used as a fundamental element in quantum communication and quantum computation. Optical fibers are crucial information channels, but teleportation of continuous variable optical modes through fibers has not been realized so far. Here, we experimentally demonstrate deterministic quantum teleportation of an optical coherent state through fiber channels. Two sub-modes of an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled state are distributed to a sender and a receiver through a 3.0-km fiber, which acts as a quantum resource. The deterministic teleportation of optical modes over a fiber channel of 6.0 km is realized. A fidelity of 0.62 ± 0.03 is achieved for the retrieved quantum state, which breaks through the classical limit of 1 / 2 . Our work provides a feasible scheme to implement deterministic quantum teleportation in communication networks.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Monocytes and macrophages play a key role in defending pathogens, removing the dead cells or cell debris, and wound healing. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor rapamycin (RPM) is widely used in clinics to treat patients with organ transplantation or tumors. The role of mTOR in monocyte/macrophage development remains to be clarified. Here we found that mTOR intrinsically controls monocyte/macrophage development, as evidenced by the decreased percentages and cell numbers of CD11b + F4/80 + cells resulting from mTOR inhibition in SCID mice, mTOR-deficient mice, and mixed chimera mice, and the in vitro colony formation and monocyte/macrophage induction assays. However, Lyzs-mTOR knockout mice displayed normal levels of monocytes/macrophages, indicating that mTOR is not essential for the survival and maturation of monocytes/macrophages. Further studies showed that mTOR deficiency significantly reduced macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor CD115 expression at the transcriptional and translational levels. The molecular mechanism studies indicate that the impaired monocyte/macrophage development caused by mTOR deficiency is mainly a result of the overactivated STAT5 and subsequent downregulation of IRF8, but not the altered cell metabolism and autophagy. Therefore, our work identifies that mTOR is an intrinsic master for monocyte/macrophage development at the early stages through regulating STAT5-IRF8-dependent CD115-expressing pathway. Long-term usage of RPM may cause a defect of myeloid progenitors in bone marrow.
    Keywords: Myeloid Neoplasia, Phagocytes, Granulocytes, and Myelopoiesis
    Print ISSN: 0006-4971
    Electronic ISSN: 1528-0020
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: TLRs are pivotal pattern recognition receptors in initiating innate immunity and triggering adaptive immunity. TLR pathways have been comprehensively investigated in mammals. However, the teleost-specific TLR19 pathway remains largely unknown. In this study, we identified TLR19 from grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella ), and explored the ligand, adaptor, and signaling pathways. Pathogen-associated molecular pattern binding and luciferase activity assays indicate that TLR19 recognizes and responds to dsRNA analog (polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid). Confocal fluorescence microscopy demonstrates that TLR19 is synthesized in ribosomes not binding on endoplasmic reticulum, then transfers to early endosome post-polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid stimulation. Fluorescence colocalization and immunoprecipitation experiments confirm TLR19 interacts with adaptor TRIF, not MyD88, TIRAP, or SARM1. TLR19 facilitates protein and phosphorylation levels of IRF3, inhibits phosphorylation of IRF7. TLR19 enhances the promoter activities and mRNA expressions of major IFNs and NF-Bs; in contrast, grass carp TLR3 just significantly motivates IFN1 expression post-grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection. Further investigations reveal that TLR19 inhibits GCRV replication by overexpression, knockdown, Western blotting techniques and virus titer assays, and protects cells from GCRV infection by flow cytometry and MTT method. Collectively, these results demonstrate that teleost-specific TLR19 recognizes dsRNA, recruits adaptor molecule TRIF, enhances IRF3 protein and phosphorylation levels, triggers both IFN and NF-B pathways, and prevents viral proliferation. This is the first attempt to systematically clarify the TLR19 signaling pathway, which is the third TLR member recognizing dsRNA. The results will serve the antiviral immune mechanisms in teleost and evolutionary immunology.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1767
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-6606
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2015-08-27
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhao, Ling -- Chen, Xiang-Jun -- Zhu, Jie -- Xi, Yi-Bo -- Yang, Xu -- Hu, Li-Dan -- Ouyang, Hong -- Patel, Sherrina H -- Jin, Xin -- Lin, Danni -- Wu, Frances -- Flagg, Ken -- Cai, Huimin -- Li, Gen -- Cao, Guiqun -- Lin, Ying -- Chen, Daniel -- Wen, Cindy -- Chung, Christopher -- Wang, Yandong -- Qiu, Austin -- Yeh, Emily -- Wang, Wenqiu -- Hu, Xun -- Grob, Seanna -- Abagyan, Ruben -- Su, Zhiguang -- Tjondro, Harry Christianto -- Zhao, Xi-Juan -- Luo, Hongrong -- Hou, Rui -- Perry, J Jefferson P -- Gao, Weiwei -- Kozak, Igor -- Granet, David -- Li, Yingrui -- Sun, Xiaodong -- Wang, Jun -- Zhang, Liangfang -- Liu, Yizhi -- Yan, Yong-Bin -- Zhang, Kang -- England -- Nature. 2015 Oct 22;526(7574):595. doi: 10.1038/nature15253. Epub 2015 Aug 26.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26308894" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-05-21
    Description: Tan et al. (Reports, 25 September 2009, p. 1686) argued that loss of tyrosine residues from proteins in metazoans was driven by positive selection to remove potentially deleterious phosphorylation sites. We challenge this hypothesis, providing evidence that the high guanine-cytosine (GC) content of metazoan genomes was the primary driver in the loss of tyrosine residues.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Su, Zhixi -- Huang, Wei -- Gu, Xun -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 May 20;332(6032):917; author reply 917. doi: 10.1126/science.1187374.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉MOE Key Laboratory of Contemporary Anthropology and Center for Evolutionary Biology, School of Life Sciences, Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21596977" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Base Composition ; *Biological Evolution ; Choanoflagellata/chemistry/genetics ; Evolution, Molecular ; Fungal Proteins/chemistry ; *Genome ; Phosphorylation ; Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/metabolism ; Proteins/*chemistry ; Protozoan Proteins/chemistry ; Saccharomycetales/chemistry/genetics ; *Selection, Genetic ; Tyrosine/*chemistry
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-06
    Description: Malaria remains a devastating disease largely because of widespread drug resistance. New drugs and a better understanding of the mechanisms of drug action and resistance are essential for fulfilling the promise of eradicating malaria. Using high-throughput chemical screening and genome-wide association analysis, we identified 32 highly active compounds and genetic loci associated with differential chemical phenotypes (DCPs), defined as greater than or equal to fivefold differences in half-maximum inhibitor concentration (IC(50)) between parasite lines. Chromosomal loci associated with 49 DCPs were confirmed by linkage analysis and tests of genetically modified parasites, including three genes that were linked to 96% of the DCPs. Drugs whose responses mapped to wild-type or mutant pfcrt alleles were tested in combination in vitro and in vivo, which yielded promising new leads for antimalarial treatments.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3396183/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3396183/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yuan, Jing -- Cheng, Ken Chih-Chien -- Johnson, Ronald L -- Huang, Ruili -- Pattaradilokrat, Sittiporn -- Liu, Anna -- Guha, Rajarshi -- Fidock, David A -- Inglese, James -- Wellems, Thomas E -- Austin, Christopher P -- Su, Xin-zhuan -- R01 AI050234/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI50234/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- ZIB HG200319-08/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Aug 5;333(6043):724-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1205216.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21817045" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Antimalarials/chemistry/*pharmacology ; Biological Evolution ; Chromosome Mapping ; Drug Combinations ; *Drug Resistance/genetics ; *Genes, Protozoan ; Genetic Linkage ; Genetic Loci ; *Genome, Protozoan ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; High-Throughput Screening Assays ; Inhibitory Concentration 50 ; Membrane Transport Proteins/genetics ; Molecular Structure ; Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins/genetics ; Mutation ; *Parasitic Sensitivity Tests ; Plasmodium falciparum/*drug effects/*genetics/growth & development/metabolism ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Protozoan Proteins/genetics ; Structure-Activity Relationship
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2012-03-10
    Description: It is unknown how the composition and structure of DNA within the cell affect spontaneous mutations. Theory suggests that in eukaryotic genomes, nucleosomal DNA undergoes fewer C--〉T mutations because of suppressed cytosine hydrolytic deamination relative to nucleosome-depleted DNA. Comparative genomic analyses and a mutation accumulation experiment showed that nucleosome occupancy nearly eliminated cytosine deamination, resulting in an ~50% decrease of the C--〉T mutation rate in nucleosomal DNA. Furthermore, the rates of G--〉T and A--〉T mutations were also about twofold suppressed by nucleosomes. On the basis of these results, we conclude that nucleosome-dependent mutation spectra affect eukaryotic genome structure and evolution and may have implications for understanding the origin of mutations in cancers and in induced pluripotent stem cells.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chen, Xiaoshu -- Chen, Zhidong -- Chen, Han -- Su, Zhijian -- Yang, Jianfeng -- Lin, Fangqin -- Shi, Suhua -- He, Xionglei -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Mar 9;335(6073):1235-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1217580.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉State Key Laboratory of Bio-control, College of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22403392" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Base Pairing ; Base Sequence ; Caenorhabditis elegans/*genetics ; Cytosine/chemistry/metabolism ; DNA, Fungal/chemistry/genetics ; DNA, Helminth/chemistry/genetics ; DNA, Intergenic ; Deamination ; Genome, Fungal ; Germ Cells ; Models, Genetic ; *Mutation Rate ; Nucleosomes/*chemistry/*physiology ; Oryzias/embryology/*genetics ; *Point Mutation ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Saccharomyces/genetics ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/*genetics ; Sequence Analysis, DNA
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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