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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-09-30
    Description: Earlier spring leaf unfolding is a frequently observed response of plants to climate warming. Many deciduous tree species require chilling for dormancy release, and warming-related reductions in chilling may counteract the advance of leaf unfolding in response to warming. Empirical evidence for this, however, is limited to saplings or twigs in climate-controlled chambers. Using long-term in situ observations of leaf unfolding for seven dominant European tree species at 1,245 sites, here we show that the apparent response of leaf unfolding to climate warming (ST, expressed in days advance of leaf unfolding per degrees C warming) has significantly decreased from 1980 to 2013 in all monitored tree species. Averaged across all species and sites, ST decreased by 40% from 4.0 +/- 1.8 days degrees C(-1) during 1980-1994 to 2.3 +/- 1.6 days degrees C(-1) during 1999-2013. The declining ST was also simulated by chilling-based phenology models, albeit with a weaker decline (24-30%) than observed in situ. The reduction in ST is likely to be partly attributable to reduced chilling. Nonetheless, other mechanisms may also have a role, such as 'photoperiod limitation' mechanisms that may become ultimately limiting when leaf unfolding dates occur too early in the season. Our results provide empirical evidence for a declining ST, but also suggest that the predicted strong winter warming in the future may further reduce ST and therefore result in a slowdown in the advance of tree spring phenology.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Fu, Yongshuo H -- Zhao, Hongfang -- Piao, Shilong -- Peaucelle, Marc -- Peng, Shushi -- Zhou, Guiyun -- Ciais, Philippe -- Huang, Mengtian -- Menzel, Annette -- Penuelas, Josep -- Song, Yang -- Vitasse, Yann -- Zeng, Zhenzhong -- Janssens, Ivan A -- England -- Nature. 2015 Oct 1;526(7571):104-7. doi: 10.1038/nature15402. Epub 2015 Sep 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Sino-French Institute for Earth System Science, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China. ; Centre of Excellence PLECO (Plant and Vegetation Ecology), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk, Belgium. ; Key Laboratory of Alpine Ecology and Biodiversity, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China. ; Center for Excellence in Tibetan Earth Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China. ; Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, CEA CNRS UVSQ, Gif-sur-Yvette 91190, France. ; School of Resources and Environment, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731, China. ; Ecoclimatology, Technische Universitat Munchen, Freising 85354, Germany. ; Technische Universitat Munchen, Institute for Advanced Study, Lichtenbergstrasse 2a, 85748 Garching, Germany. ; CREAF, Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona 08193, Catalonia, Spain. ; CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona 08193, Catalonia, Spain. ; Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA. ; University of Neuchatel, Institute of Geography, Neuchatel 2000, Switzerland. ; WSL Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Neuchatel 2000, Switzerland. ; WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF, Group Mountain Ecosystems, Davos 7260, Switzerland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26416746" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cold Temperature ; Europe ; *Global Warming ; Models, Biological ; Photoperiod ; Plant Leaves/*growth & development ; *Seasons ; Time Factors ; Trees/*growth & development
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-03-18
    Description: Knowledge of the contribution that individual countries have made to global radiative forcing is important to the implementation of the agreement on "common but differentiated responsibilities" reached by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Over the past three decades, China has experienced rapid economic development, accompanied by increased emission of greenhouse gases, ozone precursors and aerosols, but the magnitude of the associated radiative forcing has remained unclear. Here we use a global coupled biogeochemistry-climate model and a chemistry and transport model to quantify China's present-day contribution to global radiative forcing due to well-mixed greenhouse gases, short-lived atmospheric climate forcers and land-use-induced regional surface albedo changes. We find that China contributes 10% +/- 4% of the current global radiative forcing. China's relative contribution to the positive (warming) component of global radiative forcing, mainly induced by well-mixed greenhouse gases and black carbon aerosols, is 12% +/- 2%. Its relative contribution to the negative (cooling) component is 15% +/- 6%, dominated by the effect of sulfate and nitrate aerosols. China's strongest contributions are 0.16 +/- 0.02 watts per square metre for CO2 from fossil fuel burning, 0.13 +/- 0.05 watts per square metre for CH4, -0.11 +/- 0.05 watts per square metre for sulfate aerosols, and 0.09 +/- 0.06 watts per square metre for black carbon aerosols. China's eventual goal of improving air quality will result in changes in radiative forcing in the coming years: a reduction of sulfur dioxide emissions would drive a faster future warming, unless offset by larger reductions of radiative forcing from well-mixed greenhouse gases and black carbon.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Li, Bengang -- Gasser, Thomas -- Ciais, Philippe -- Piao, Shilong -- Tao, Shu -- Balkanski, Yves -- Hauglustaine, Didier -- Boisier, Juan-Pablo -- Chen, Zhuo -- Huang, Mengtian -- Li, Laurent Zhaoxin -- Li, Yue -- Liu, Hongyan -- Liu, Junfeng -- Peng, Shushi -- Shen, Zehao -- Sun, Zhenzhong -- Wang, Rong -- Wang, Tao -- Yin, Guodong -- Yin, Yi -- Zeng, Hui -- Zeng, Zhenzhong -- Zhou, Feng -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 17;531(7594):357-61. doi: 10.1038/nature17165.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Sino-French Institute for Earth System Science, Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China. ; Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing, 210023, China. ; Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France. ; Centre International de Recherche en Environnement et Developpement, CNRS-PontsParisTech-EHESS-AgroParisTech-CIRAD, 94736 Nogent-sur-Marne, France. ; Key Laboratory of Alpine Ecology and Biodiversity, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Center for Excellence in Tibetan Earth Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China. ; Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, 75252 Paris, France.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26983540" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aerosols/analysis/chemistry ; Air Pollution/*analysis ; Atmosphere/*chemistry ; Carbon Dioxide/analysis ; China ; Fossil Fuels ; *Greenhouse Effect ; Methane/analysis ; Soot/analysis ; Sulfates/analysis ; Sulfur Dioxide/analysis ; Uncertainty
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-11-24
    Description: The tremendous potential of zeolite membranes for efficient molecular separation via size-exclusion effects is highly desired by the energy and chemical industries, but its practical realization has been hindered by nonselective permeation through intercrystalline spaces and high resistance to intracrystalline diffusion in the conventional zeolite membranes of randomly oriented polycrystalline structures. Here, we report the synthesis of ZSM-5 zeolite nanosheets with very large aspect ratios and nanometer-scale thickness in the preferred straight channel direction. We used these ZSM-5 nanosheets to fabricate ultrathin (〈500 nm) laminated membranes on macroporous alumina substrates by a simple dip-coating process and subsequent consolidation via vapor-phase crystallization. This ultrathin b -oriented ZSM-5 membrane has demonstrated extraordinary water flux combined with high salt rejection in pervaporation desalination for brines containing up to 24 weight % of dissolved NaCl. The ZSM-5 nanosheets may also offer opportunities to developing high-performance battery ion separators, catalysts, adsorbents, and thin-film sensors.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-07-13
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zeng, Guangming -- Chen, Ming -- Zeng, Zhuotong -- England -- Nature. 2013 Jul 11;499(7457):154. doi: 10.1038/499154c.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23846647" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Groundwater/*chemistry ; Methane/*analysis ; Natural Gas/*supply & distribution ; Water Pollutants/*analysis
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2013-06-22
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zeng, Guangming -- Chen, Ming -- Zeng, Zhuotong -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Jun 21;340(6139):1403. doi: 10.1126/science.340.6139.1403-a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23788781" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bees/*drug effects ; Pesticides/*toxicity ; Pollination/*drug effects
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-02-10
    Description: Optogenetics has revolutionized the experimental interrogation of neural circuits and holds promise for the treatment of neurological disorders. It is limited, however, because visible light cannot penetrate deep inside brain tissue. Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) absorb tissue-penetrating near-infrared (NIR) light and emit wavelength-specific visible light. Here, we demonstrate that molecularly tailored UCNPs can serve as optogenetic actuators of transcranial NIR light to stimulate deep brain neurons. Transcranial NIR UCNP-mediated optogenetics evoked dopamine release from genetically tagged neurons in the ventral tegmental area, induced brain oscillations through activation of inhibitory neurons in the medial septum, silenced seizure by inhibition of hippocampal excitatory cells, and triggered memory recall. UCNP technology will enable less-invasive optical neuronal activity manipulation with the potential for remote therapy.
    Keywords: Materials Science, Neuroscience
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0277-5387
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters A 161 (1991), S. 60-66 
    ISSN: 0375-9601
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0921-4534
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0584-8547
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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