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  • 1
    Keywords: CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; SURVIVAL ; CELL ; human ; IN-VIVO ; EXPOSURE ; MORTALITY ; MICE ; ACTIVATION ; RESPONSES ; INFECTION ; MECHANISM ; DENDRITIC CELLS ; IMMUNE-RESPONSES ; virus ; NO ; HEALTH ; HUMANS ; antigen presentation ; INDIVIDUALS ; immune response ; IMMUNE-RESPONSE ; INFLAMMATORY RESPONSES ; SUPPRESSOR ; elderly ; USA ; ENGLAND ; EXPANSION ; NATURAL-KILLER ; PUBLIC-HEALTH ; MEDICINE ; IFN-GAMMA PRODUCTION ; outcome ; response ; ALPHA-GALACTOSYLCERAMIDE ; Crosstalk ; INNATE IMMUNE-RESPONSE ; KILLER T-CELLS ; MURINE CYTOMEGALOVIRUS ; Myeloid cell ; myeloid cells ; myeloid-derived suppressor cells ; SUPPRESSOR-CELLS ; TUMOR IMMUNOSURVEILLANCE
    Abstract: infection with influenza A virus (IAV) presents a substantial threat to public health worldwide, with young, elderly, and immunodeficient individuals being particularly susceptible. Inflammatory responses play an important role in the fatal outcome of IAV infection, but the mechanism remains unclear. We demonstrate here that the absence of invariant NKT (iNKT) cells in mice during IAV infection resulted in the expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), which suppressed IAV-specific immune responses through the expression of both arginase and NOS, resulting in high IAV titer and increased mortality. Adoptive transfer of iNKT cells abolished the suppressive activity of MDSCs, restored IAV-specific immune responses, reduced IAV titer, and increased survival rate. The crosstalk between iNKT and MDSCs was CD1d- and CD40-dependent. Furthermore, IAV infection and exposure to TLR agonists relieved the suppressive activity of MDSCs. Finally, we extended these results to humans by demonstrating the presence of myeloid cells with suppressive activity in the PBLs of individuals infected with IAV and showed that their suppressive activity is substantially reduced by iNKT cell activation. These findings identify what we believe to be a novel immunomodulatory role of iNKT cells, which we suggest could be harnessed to abolish the immunosuppressive activity of MDSCs during IAV infection
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19033672
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  • 2
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    German Medical Science; Düsseldorf, Köln
    In:  International Conference on SARS - one year after the (first) outbreak; 20040508-20040511; Lübeck; DOC04sars8.08 /20040526/
    Publication Date: 2004-05-26
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1440
    Keywords: Fibronectin ; Hepatic blood flow ; Liver cirrhosis ; Spleen
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We found a significantly lower plasma fibronectin concentration in cirrhotic patients than in controls, a significant inverse relationship between fibronectin and spleen size, but no correlation between fibronectin and hepatic blood flow, prothrombin time, or serum albumin. We suggest that the increased degradation in the enlarged spleen is more relevant than the decreased synthesis in reducing plasma fibronectin levels during liver cirrhosis with portal hypertension.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 268 (1977), S. 318-319 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] We have collected in Fig. 1, 485 B-magnitudes by Kinman et al.1, Barbieri and Erculiani3, Tritton and Selmes4, Smyth and Wolstencroft5, McGimsey et al.Q, Selmes et al.1, Markova et al.8, Markova andZhukov* and from unpublished data obtained at Asiago. To simplify discussion, observations in ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1471-0528
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Objective To determine whether maternal influenza virus infection in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy results in transplacental transmission of infection, maternal auto-antibody production or an increase in complications of pregnancy.Design Case-control cohort study.Population Study and control cohorts were derived from 3975 women who were consecutively delivered at two Nottingham teaching hospitals between May 1993 and July 1994. A complete set of three sera was available for 1659 women.Methods Paired maternal ante- and postnatal sera were screened for a rise in anti-influenza virus antibody titre by single radial haemolysis and haemagglutination inhibition. Routine obstetric data collected during and after pregnancy were retrieved from the Nottingham obstetric database. Cord samples were tested for the presence of IgM anti-influenza antibodies, and postnatal infant sera were tested for the persistence of influenza-virus specific IgG. Paired antenatal and postnatal sera were tested against a standard range of auto-antigens by immunofluorescence.Main outcome measures Classification of women as having definite serological evidence of an influenza virus infection in pregnancy (cases) or as controls.Results Intercurrent influenza virus infections were identified in 182/1659 (11.0%) pregnancies. None of 138 cord sera from maternal influenza cases was positive for influenza A virus specific IgM. IgG anti-influenza antibodies did not persist in any of 12 infant sera taken at age 6–12 months. Six of 172 postnatal maternal sera from cases of influenza were positive for auto-antibodies. In all cases the corresponding antenatal serum was also positive for the same auto-antibody. There were no significant differences in pregnancy outcome measures between cases and controls. Overall, there were significantly more complications of pregnancy in the cases versus the controls, but no single type of complication achieved statistical significance.Influenza infection in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy is a relatively common event. We found no evidence for transplacental transmission of influenza virus or auto-antibody production in pregnancies complicated by influenza infections. There was an increase in the complications of pregnancy in our influenza cohort.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-7284
    Keywords: Epidemics ; Influenza ; Sentinel practices ; Surveillance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Weekly incidence data for influenza-like illness, routinely collected in sentinel general practices in England and Wales and in the Netherlands over 10 winter periods (week 37 in one year to week 20 in the next, 1987/1988–1996/1997) were examined in conjunction with matching virus isolate data to define epidemic periods of influenza in the two countries. We first defined the background rates of recording influenza-like illness which occurred at times when only sporadic or no isolations of virus were reported. The background rates were similar in the two networks with mean weekly incidence in England and Wales of 28.1 per 100,000 (all ages) and in the Netherlands 29.8. Epidemic periods defined as lying above the upper 95% confidence level of the background rate lasted on an average of about 10 weeks. Once epidemics were recognised, peak incidence was generally achieved within 4 weeks. The excess population (all ages) consulting general practitioners during influenza epidemic periods was calculated from the difference between the observed and background incidence rates, and expressed as a percentage of the total population. In the 10 periods surveyed, the percentage of the population consulting and diagnosed with influenza-like illness in England and Wales ranged from 0.4% in 1991/1992 to 1.7% in 1989/1990 and in the Netherlands from 0.5% in 1990/1991 to 2.1% in 1989/1990. The duration and epidemic periods were broadly similar in the two countries though the excess consulting population during the 10 epidemics studied averaged 0.85% in England and Wales compared with 1.39% in the Netherlands. There were substantial differences between the two countries in the impact of influenza in individual years, as measured in the consulting population even though the predominant virus (sub)types were similar.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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