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  • 1
    ISSN: 1435-4373
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The results of investigations carried out to evaluate the inhibitory activity in vitro of seven vaginal antiseptic douche solutions against several strains of vaginal lactobacilli isolated from asymptomatic women are reported. Some of the products examined showed marked antibacterial activity even at high dilutions and for short exposure times. The post-antibiotic effect of two of these antiseptics on vaginal lactobacilli was also evaluated. The results of these investigations suggest that uncontrolled use of antiseptic products could cause changes in the normal vaginal flora.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Triticum aestivum ; QTL ; Leaf rust ; Durable resistance ; Leaf-tip necrosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Quantitative resistance that delays the epidemic development of leaf rust in wheat is an important source for durable resistance breeding. The Swiss winter wheat variety ’Forno’ shows a high level of quantitative resistance against leaf rust. This resistance has been effective for more than 10 years and can therefore be considered to be durable. In order to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for durable leaf rust resistance we analysed 204 F5 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the cross between the winter wheat ’Forno’ and the winter spelt ’Oberkulmer’ for their level of leaf rust resistance (LR) and leaf tip necrosis (LTN) in four different environments. Both traits showed a continuous distribution and were significantly correlated (r=−0.5). Across environments we detected 8 QTL for leaf rust resistance (6 inherited from ’Forno’) and 10 QTL for the quantitative expression of LTN (6 inherited from ’Forno’). Of the 6 QTL responsible for the durable leaf rust resistance of ’Forno’, 1 major QTL coincided with a thaumatin locus on 7BL explaining 35% of the phenotypic variance. Four QTL for LR coincided with QTL for LTN. At these loci the alleles of ’Forno’ increased the level of resistance as well as the extent of LTN, indicating pleiotropy.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key wordsTriticum aestivum ; Triticum spelta ; RFLP ; Genetic map ; QTL
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  We constructed a genetic map of a cross between the Swiss winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety Forno and the Swiss winter spelt (Triticum spelta L.) variety Oberkulmer. For the linkage analysis,176 polymorphic RFLP probes and nine microsatellites were tested on 204 F5 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of Forno×Oberkulmer revealing 242 segregating marker loci. Thirty five percent of these loci showed significant (P〉0.05) deviation from a 1 : 1 segregation, and the percentage of Forno alleles ranged from 21% to 83% for individual marker loci. Linkage analysis was performed with the program MAPMAKER using the Haldane mapping function. Using a LOD threshold of 10, we obtained 37 linkage groups. After finding the best order of marker loci within linkage groups by multi-point analysis we assembled the linkage groups into 23 larger units by lowering the LOD threshold. All except one of the 23 new linkage groups could be assigned to physical chromosomes or chromosome arms according to hybridisation patterns of nulli-tetrasomic lines of Chinese Spring and published wheat maps. This resulted in a genetic map comprising 230 marker loci and spanning 2469 cM. Since the analysed population is segregating for a wide range of agronomically important traits, this genetic map is an ideal basis for the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for these traits.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0014-5793
    Keywords: (Hepatocyte) ; Choline deficiency ; Phosphatidylcholine synthesis ; Phosphatidylethanolamine methylation ; Transmethylation
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Key words Nitrogen nutrition ; Elevated partial pressure of carbon dioxide ; Lolium perenne ; Trifolium repens ; Transfer of symbiotically fixed nitrogen
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The extent of the response of plant growth to atmospheric CO2 enrichment depends on the availability of resources other than CO2. An important growth-limiting resource under field conditions is nitrogen (N). N may, therefore, influence the CO2 response of plants. The effect of elevated CO2 (60 Pa) partial pressure (pCO2) on the N nutrition of field-grown Lolium perenne swards, cultivated alone or in association with Trifolium repens, was investigated using free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) technology over 3 years. The established grassland ecosystems were treated with two N fertilization levels and were defoliated at two frequencies. Under elevated pCO2, the above-ground plant material of the L. perenne monoculture showed a consistent and significant decline in N concentration which, in general, led to a lower total annual N yield. Despite the decline in the critical N concentration (minimum N concentration required for non-N-limited biomass production) under elevated pCO2, the index of N nutrition (ratio of actual N concentration and critical N concentration) was lower under elevated pCO2 than under ambient pCO2 in frequently defoliated L. perenne monocultures. Thus, we suggest that reduced N yield under elevated pCO2 was evoked indirectly by a reduction of plant-available N. For L. perenne grown in association with T. repens and exposed to elevated pCO2, there was an increase in the contribution of symbiotically fixed N to the total N yield of the grass. This can be explained by an increased apparent transfer of N from the associated N2-fixing legume species to the non-fixing grass. The total annual N yield of the mixed grass/legume swards increased under elevated pCO2. All the additional N yielded was due to symbiotically fixed N. Through the presence of an N2-fixing plant species more symbiotically fixed N was introduced into the system and consequently helped to overcome N limitation under elevated pCO2.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2230
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Ferroelectric SrBi2Ta2O9 thin films on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si were successfully synthesized by the modified polymeric precursor method. The films were deposited by spin coating and crystallized by rapid thermal annealing in a halogen lamp furnace, followed by postannealing at temperatures ranging from 700 °C to 800 °C in an oxygen atmosphere. Microstructural and phase evaluations were followed by x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. The films displayed spherical grain structures with a superficial roughness of approximately 3–6 nm. The dielectric constant values were 121 and 248 for films treated at 700 °C and 800 °C, respectively. The P–E curve showed a voltage shift toward the positive side, which was attributed to crystallization under the halogen illumination. The remanent polarization (2Pr) and coercive field (Ec) were 7.1 μC/cm2 and 113 kV/cm, and 18.8 μC/cm2 and 93 kV/cm for the films treated at 700 °C and 800 °C, respectively. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The objective of this investigation was to examine the effect of an elevated atmospheric CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) on the N-sink strength and performance of symbiotic N2 fixation in Trifolium repens L. cv. Milkanova. After initial growth under ambient pCO2 in a nitrogen-free nutrient solution, T. repens in the exponential growth stage was exposed to ambient and elevated pCO2 (35 and 60 Pa) and two levels of mineral N (N-free and 7·5 mol m–3 N) for 36 d in single pots filled with silica sand in growth chambers. Elevated pCO2 evoked a significant increase in biomass production from day 12 after the start of CO2 enrichment. For plants supplied with 7·5 mol m–3 N, the relative contribution of symbiotically fixed N (%Nsym) as opposed to N assimilated from mineral sources (15N-isotope-dilution method), dropped to 40%. However, in the presence of this high level of mineral N, %Nsym was unaffected by atmospheric pCO2 over the entire experimental period. In plants fully dependent on N2 fixation, the increase in N yield reflects a stimulation of symbiotic N2 fixation that was the result of the formation of more nodules rather than of higher specific N2 fixation. These results are discussed with regard to physiological processes governing symbiotic N2 fixation and to the response of symbiotic N2 fixation to elevated pCO2 in field-grown T. repens.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The effect of an elevated partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) on carbohydrate concentrations in source leaves and pseudo-stems (stubble) of Lolium perenne L. (perennial ryegrass) during regrowth was studied in a regularly defoliated grass sward in the field. The free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) technology enabled natural environmental conditions to be provided. Two levels of nitrogen (N) supply were used to modulate potential plant growth. Carbohydrate concentrations in source leaves were increased at elevated pCO2, particularly at low N supply. Elevated leaf carbohydrate concentrations were related to an increased structural carbon (C) to N ratio and thus reflected an increased C availability together with a N-dependent sink limitation. Immediately after defoliation, apparent assimilate export rates (differences in the carbohydrate concentrations of young source leaves measured in the evening and on the following morning) showed a greater increase at elevated pCO2 than at ambient pCO2; however, replenishment of carbohydrate reserves was not accelerated. Distinct, treatment-dependent carbohydrate concentrations in pseudo-stems suggested an increasing degree of C-sink limitation from the treatment at ambient pCO2 with high N supply to that at elevated pCO2 with low N supply. During two growing seasons, no evidence of a substantial change in the response of the carbohydrate source in L. perenne to elevated pCO2 was found. Our results support the view that the response of L. perenne to elevated pCO2 is restricted by a C-sink limitation, which is particularly severe at low N supply.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1468-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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