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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2277
    Keywords: Liver transplantation ; portosystemic shunts-Portosystemic shunts ; liver transplantation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Spontaneous portosystemic shunts are commonly found in cirrhotic patients. Not yet established is their role after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLTx), especially when an increase in portal pressure develops, as during early acute rejection. In this study, 34 cirrhotic patients in a series of 70 OLTx are considered. Each patient had preoperative angiographic assessment, and, in 21 (62%), large spontaneous portosystemic shunts were evident. In 12 cases the shunts were not affected by the surgical procedure and were present during the postoperative period; in 9 the hepatectomy itself involved interruption of the shunts. The patient population was divided into two groups: patients with postoperative shunts (n=12) and those without (n=22). The two groups were similar in age, sex, Child's stage, transplantation variables, and number and grade of rejection episodes. However, mean transaminases (AST) values in the first 2 weeks were significantly higher levels in shunt versus nonshunt patients (421±335 vs 183±126; P〈0.025), and this was even more evident when rejection occurred (626±375 vs 195±129; P〈0.001). Furthermore, during an acute rejection reaction, three cases showed a true “steal phenomenon” through the large reopened shunts with ischemic damage to the grafts. The data indicate a possible detrimental effect of the spontaneous shunts on graft perfusion and suggest the prophylactic surgical interruption of the residual shunts during the transplantation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2277
    Keywords: Biliary reconstruction, in liver transplantation ; Liver transplantation, biliary reconstruction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Biliary complications are described as frequent causes of morbidity during the postoperative course of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLTx), even in recent papers. The authors report here on their experience with duct-to-duct anastomosis as their method of choice for biliary reconstruction in a consecutive series of 100 OLTx in adult patients. The original technique, as described by Starzl, was modified by the authors by performing a wide, longitudinal plasty of both the donor and recipient bile ducts, joined together with two polidioxanone running sutures, producing the effect of a side-to-side anastomosis. This technique was used in all procedures, even when a significant discrepancy was evident between the ducts (n=10). Follow-up was completed in 100% of the patients for a period of 2–40 months (mean 13.1 months). Four major complications (4%) occurred including hepatic abscesses due to ascending cholangitis, T-tube dislocation, partial occlusion by a branch of the T-tube at the anastomotic site, and disruption of the bile duct after T-tube removal. In four other patients, transient abdominal pain followed removal of the stent. Neither strictures nor fistulas were observed. Choledochocholedochostomy on a T-tube stent represents, in our experience, the technique of choice for biliary reconstruction in OLTx. The procedure, as described in the present study, proved to be safe in preventing strictures and leakages and appears to be feasible in nearly 100% of all adult patients undergoing OLTx.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: adjuvant chemotherapy ; breast cancer ; mastectomy ; reconstruction ; skin expander-toxicity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background. Immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) by means of skin expander is currently one of the most widely used methods of breast reconstruction in mastectomized patients. However, given that many breast cancer patients usually receive adjuvant chemotherapy, the adoption of IBR raises new questions concerning possible cumulative toxicity. The present study reports our experience in the use of concurrent adjuvant chemotherapy and immediate breast reconstruction with skin expander after mastectomy for breast cancer and the acute cumulative toxicity of the treatments. Methods. We evaluated a consecutive series of 52 breast cancer patients who have received IBR by skin expander after radical mastectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy concurrently during skin expansion between 1995 and 1998 (IBR/CT group). We identified two series of control patients treated during the same period: 51 consecutive patients undergoing radical mastectomy and IBR without adjuvant chemotherapy (IBR group) and 63 consecutive patients undergoing radical mastectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy without IBR (CT group). For each patient, we evaluated the incidence of surgical complications and chemotherapy's side effects and dose intensity. Results. The interval between surgery and the start of expander inflation was similar in IBR/CT (range 0–19, median 5 days) and IBR groups (range 0–40, median 5 days) and the timing of inflation was not influenced by chemotherapy. The overall incidence of surgical complications in patients undergoing IBR was low: seroma in eight cases, infection in one, skin necrosis in one, expander rupture in two and erythema in three. There were no statistically significant differences in the distribution of complications between the IBR/CT and IBR groups. The dose intensity of chemotherapy was similar between IBR/CT and CT groups, with a median dose intensity of 96% and 95% of the projected dose, respectively. The only statistically significant difference in terms of chemotherapy side effects (p=0.03) was that stomatitis was more frequent and intense in the CT than in the IBR/CT group. Conclusions. Concurrent treatment with IBR and adjuvant chemotherapy appears feasible and safe, it does not increase acute surgical complications or chemotherapy side effects, and does not require any changes in dose intensity or the timing of inflation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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