Filamentous fungi identification by Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been challenging due to the lack of simple and rapid protein extraction methods and insufficient species coverage in the database. In this study, we created two rapid protein extraction methods for filamentous fungi: a one-step zirconia-silica beads method (ZSB) and a focused-ultrasonication method (FUS). The identification accuracy of two methods were evaluated with the VITEK MS, as well as number of spectra peaks and signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) with M-Discover 100 MALDI-TOF MS compared to the routine method. The better method was applied to build a filamentous fungi in-house spectra library for the M-Discover 100 MS, and then another one and routine method were performed in parallel to verify the accuracy and commonality of the in-house library. Using the two optimized methods, the dedicated operating time before MALDI-TOF MS analysis was reduced from 30 min to 7 (ZSB) or 5 (FUS) min per sample, with only a few seconds added for each additional strain. And both two methods identified isolates from most mold types equal to or better than the routine method, and the total correct identification rate using VITEK MS was 79.67, 76.42, and 76.42%, respectively. On the other hand, the two rapid methods generally achieved higher maximum and minimum S/N ratios with these isolates tested as compared to the routine method. Besides, the ZSB method produced overall mean of maximum and minimum S/N ratio higher than that by FUS. An in-house library of M-Discover MS was successfully built from 135 isolates from 42 species belonging to 18 genera using the ZSB method. Analysis of 467 isolates resulted in 97.22% correctly identified isolates to the species level by the ZSB method versus 95.50% by the routine method. The two novel methods are time- and cost-effective and allow efficient identification of filamentous fungi while providing a simplified procedure to build an in-house library. Thus, more clinical laboratories may consider adopting MALDI-TOF MS for filamentous fungi identification in the future.