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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-06-20
    Description: Objectives We aimed to evaluate the relation of total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) levels, and examine the possible modifiers in the association among a general population of Chinese adults. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting The study was conducted within 21 communities in Lianyungang of Jiangsu province, China. Participants A total of 26 648 participants aged ≥35 years and with no antihypertensive drug use were included in the final analysis. Results Overall, there was a positive association between tHcy concentrations and SBP (per 5 μmol/L tHcy increase: adjusted β=0.45 mm Hg; 95% CI 0.29 to 0.61) or DBP levels (per 5 μmol/L tHcy increase: adjusted β=0.47 mm Hg; 95% CI 0.35 to 0.59). Compared with participants with tHcy 〈10 μmol/L, significantly higher SBP levels were found in those with tHcy concentrations of 10 to 〈15 (adjusted β=0.80 mm Hg; 95% CI 0.32 to 1.28) and ≥15 µmol/L (adjusted β=1.79 mm Hg; 95% CI 1.20 to 2.37; p for trend 〈0.001). Consistently, significantly higher DBP levels were found in participants with tHcy concentrations of 10 to 〈15 (adjusted β=0.86 mm Hg; 95% CI 0.49 to 1.22) and ≥15 µmol/L (adjusted β=2.01 mm Hg; 95% CI 1.57 to 2.46; p for trend 〈0.001), respectively as compared with those with 〈10 μmol/L. Furthermore, a stronger association between tHcy and SBP (p for interaction=0.009) or DBP (p for interaction=0.067) was found in current alcohol drinkers. Conclusion Serum tHcy concentrations were positively associated with both SBP and DBP levels in a general Chinese adult population. The association was stronger in current alcohol drinkers.
    Keywords: Open access, Epidemiology
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-04-24
    Description: Interleukin-10 (IL-10)-producing regulatory B (Breg) cells were found to be induced in a variety of infectious diseases. However, its importance in the regulation of immune response to malaria is still unclear. Here, we investigated the dynamics, phenotype, and function of Breg cells using Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi AS-infected C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. BALB/c mice were more susceptible to infection and had a stronger IL-10 response in spleen than C57BL/6 mice. Analysis of the surface markers of IL-10-producing cells with flow cytometry showed that CD19 + B cells were one of the primary IL-10-producing populations in P. c. chabaudi AS-infected C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice, especially in the latter one. The Breg cells had a heterogeneous phenotype which shifted during infection. The well-established Breg subset, CD19 + CD5 + CD1d hi cells, accounted for less than 20% of IL-10-producing B cells in both strains during the course of infection. Most Breg cells were IgG + and CD138 – from day 0 to day 8 postinfection. Adoptive transfer of Breg cells to C57BL/6 mice infected with P. c. chabaudi AS led to a transient increase of parasitemia without an impact on survival rate. Our finding reveals that B cells play an active and important regulatory role in addition to mediating humoral immunity in immune response against malaria, which should be paid more attention in developing therapeutic or vaccine strategies against malaria involving stimulation of B cells.
    Print ISSN: 0019-9567
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5522
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-09-15
    Description: Complex, three-dimensional (3D) mesostructures that incorporate advanced, mechanically active materials are of broad, growing interest for their potential use in many emerging systems. The technology implications range from precision-sensing microelectromechanical systems, to tissue scaffolds that exploit the principles of mechanobiology, to mechanical energy harvesters that support broad bandwidth operation. The work presented here introduces strategies in guided assembly and heterogeneous materials integration as routes to complex, 3D microscale mechanical frameworks that incorporate multiple, independently addressable piezoelectric thin-film actuators for vibratory excitation and precise control. The approach combines transfer printing as a scheme for materials integration with structural buckling as a means for 2D-to-3D geometric transformation, for designs that range from simple, symmetric layouts to complex, hierarchical configurations, on planar or curvilinear surfaces. Systematic experimental and computational studies reveal the underlying characteristics and capabilities, including selective excitation of targeted vibrational modes for simultaneous measurements of viscosity and density of surrounding fluids. The results serve as the foundations for unusual classes of mechanically active 3D mesostructures with unique functions relevant to biosensing, mechanobiology, energy harvesting, and others.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-06-05
    Description: Objective The goal of this study is to investigate the associations of apolipoprotein A5 ( APOA5 ) polymorphisms with coronary artery disease (CAD) in a Chinese population. Method This case–control study included 710 subjects (355 patients with CAD and 355 controls) who were recruited from a cross-sectional study. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs662799 (–1131T〉C), rs651821 (–3A〉G) and rs2075291 (G185C) in APOA5 were selected and genotyped using the matrix-assisted laser desorption ioniasation time of flight mass spectrometry technology. The 2 test and haplotype analysis were performed to analyse the associations between APOA5 SNPs and CAD using the SPSS V.22.0 software package and the online SNPStats program. Results APOA5 SNPs rs662799 and rs651821 exhibited significant differences in genotype and allele distributions between patients with CAD and control subjects. The SNP rs662799 was significantly correlated with an increased risk of CAD when a dominant model was considered. The SNP rs651821 was significantly correlated with an increased risk of CAD when a codominant model was considered. Moreover, the variant C alleles of rs662799 and the variant G alleles of the rs651821 polymorphism were significantly correlated with increased plasma triglyceride (TG) levels in the CAD group (all p〈0.05). Additionally, a mediating effect of TG on the associations between the APOA5 rs662799 and rs651821 polymorphisms and CAD was observed. Conclusion Based on these data, variants of the APOA5 gene are associated with CAD susceptibility and may modulate plasma TG levels among a Chinese population.
    Keywords: Open access, Genetics and genomics
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-06-23
    Description: Objective To identify the characteristics of high-cost (HC) patients and the determinants of the annual medical expenditures of Chinese rural residents. Methods Medical expenditure clustering was performed by Lorentz curve and Gini index. T and X 2 tests were performed to identify the characteristics of the respondents, and a multilevel regression model examined the determinants of their annual medical expenditures. Design A cluster sampling study was performed to identify those residents who availed healthcare services and to assign them to HC (top 5%), moderate-cost (top 30%) and low-cost (others) groups based on their annual medical expenditures. Setting The annual healthcare utilisation was calculated by using data from the population-based database of the 2014 New Rural Cooperative Medical System. Participants A total of 478 051 residents who availed healthcare services were recruited for the retrospective study in 2014. The annual medical expenditures of these residents were used as the research object. Results The total medical expenditures of Macheng city residents for the year 2014 have a Gini index of 0.81 and around 68.01% of these expenditures can be attributed to HC patients. Female residents (51.5%) and persons aged over 60 years (34.48%) who are suffering from diseases that are difficult to diagnose have a high tendency to accumulate high medical costs. The annual medical expenditures of people living in the same village or town tend to be approximated. Age, disease category, inpatient status, healthcare utilisation and utilisation level are identified as the determinants of annual medical expenditures. Conclusions The medical expenditures of rural residents are clustered at a remarkably high level, and HC patients are suffering from high economic burden. Therefore, policy-makers must guide these patients in seeking appropriate healthcare services and improve their management of healthcare quality to reduce the unnecessary healthcare utilisation of these patients. Trial registration number ChiCTR-OOR-14005563.
    Keywords: Open access, Health services research, Health economics
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-01-30
    Print ISSN: 0009-9147
    Electronic ISSN: 1530-8561
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-05-08
    Description: Pulmonary inflammation, which is characterized by the presence of perivascular macrophages, has been proposed as a key pathogenic driver of pulmonary hypertension (PH), a vascular disease with increasing global significance. However, the mechanisms of expansion of lung macrophages and the role of blood-borne monocytes in PH are poorly understood. Using multicolor flow cytometric analysis of blood in mouse and rat models of PH and patients with PH, an increase in blood monocytes was observed. In parallel, lung tissue displayed increased chemokine transcript expression, including those responsible for monocyte recruitment, such as Ccl2 and Cx 3 cl1 , accompanied by an expansion of interstitial lung macrophages. These data indicate that blood monocytes are recruited to lung perivascular spaces and differentiate into inflammatory macrophages. Correspondingly, parabiosis between congenically different hypoxic mice demonstrated that most interstitial macrophages originated from blood monocytes. To define the actions of these cells in PH in vivo, we reduced blood monocyte numbers via genetic deficiency of cx 3 cr1 or ccr2 in chronically hypoxic male mice and by pharmacologic inhibition of Cx 3 cl1 in monocrotaline-exposed rats. Both models exhibited decreased inflammatory blood monocytes, as well as interstitial macrophages, leading to a substantial decrease in arteriolar remodeling but with a less robust hemodynamic effect. This study defines a direct mechanism by which interstitial macrophages expand in PH. It also demonstrates a pathway for pulmonary vascular remodeling in PH that depends upon interstitial macrophage-dependent inflammation yet is dissociated, at least in part, from hemodynamic consequences, thus offering guidance on future anti-inflammatory therapeutic strategies in this disease.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1767
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-6606
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-05-11
    Description: Background and aim Short sleep duration is a risk factor of cardiovascular disorder; however, the association between short sleep duration and carotid atherosclerosis has not been completely characterised. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between short sleep duration and carotid atherosclerosis. Methods We used the cross-sectional data collected between May 2014 and July 2014, which were based on a cardiovascular disease cohort study including 3798 participants aged 40 years and older who are residents of Beijing, China. We used logistic regression models to examine the associations between sleep duration and carotid atherosclerosis. Results After the adjustment of covariates, short sleep duration (less than 5 hours per night) was found to be associated with carotid atherosclerosis, and it also elevated the risk of, in both terms, the increment of prevalence (OR=1.31, P〈0.05) and the quantity of carotid plaques (OR=1.28, P〈0.05). When age was also taken into consideration, the largest association, in both terms of prevalence (OR=3.46, P〈0.01) and the number of carotid plaques (OR=4.23, P〈0.01), was found in subjects over the age of 60 with short sleep duration. Conclusion In conclusion, sleep duration less than 5 hours per night is associated with a higher risk of carotid atherosclerosis compared with subjects who sleeps for 5 or over 5 hours per night, and the association may be modified by age.
    Print ISSN: 0143-005X
    Electronic ISSN: 1470-2738
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing Group
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-05-31
    Description: The metabolic profiles of tobacco leaves of two differential Chinese cultivars from different growing regions were analysed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The results of principal component analysis, partial least-squares discriminant analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis showed significant differences in metabolome among three groups, identified 24 differential metabolites, and analysed the metabolic pathway in which the metabolites were involved. Among them, 13 metabolites were associated with geographical regions, including seven organic and fatty acids, four carbohydrates and two secondary metabolites. Four amino acids and two monosaccharides were associated with cultivars and the remaining five metabolites were associated with both. The relationships among the differential metabolites and the distinct characteristics of environment and cultivar were further discussed. In addition, correlation analysis indicated that most of the differential carbohydrates were negatively correlated with the differential amino acids and organic acids. Taken together, this study demonstrates the metabolite differences between two cultivars in different regions, and highlights the effect of environment and cultivar on tobacco leaf metabolism.
    Keywords: biochemistry
    Electronic ISSN: 2054-5703
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Royal Society
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-04-10
    Description: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are major regulators of immune responses in cancer. Both C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and C/EBPβ play a critical role in regulating immunosuppressive function of MDSCs. In this study, we identified a novel long noncoding RNA termed as lnc-chop in MDSCs, which may interact with CHOP and the C/EBPβ isoform liver-enriched inhibitory protein. The binding of lnc-chop with both CHOP and the C/EBPβ isoform liver-enriched inhibitory protein promoted the activation of C/EBPβ and upregulated the expression of arginase-1, NO synthase 2, NADPH oxidase 2, and cyclooxygenase-2, which are related to the immunosuppressive function of MDSCs in inflammatory and tumor environments. Additionally, lnc-chop also promoted the enrichment of H3K4me3 on the promoter region of arginase-1, NO synthase 2, NADPH oxidase 2, and cyclooxygenase-2. These findings suggest an important role of lnc-chop in controlling immunosuppressive function of MDSCs in the tumor environment.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1767
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-6606
    Topics: Medicine
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