Bacterial endotoxins, as major components of Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane leaflets and a well-characterized TLR4-MD-2 ligand, are lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) that are constantly shed from bacteria during growth and infection. For the first time, we report that unique surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of enteric LPSs from E. coli, S. typhimurium, S. minnesota, V. cholerae, Rhizobium species R. CE3, and R. NGR, as well as Neisseria meningitidis endotoxin structures, LPSs, lipid A, and KDO2-lipid A can be obtained. The characteristic peaks of the SERS spectra reveal that most of the tested LPS structures are from lipids and saccharides, i.e., the major components of LPSs, and these spectra can be successfully used to differentiate between endotoxins with principal components analysis. In addition, all the LPS samples here are measured at a concentration of 10 nmole/mL, which corresponds to their relevant pathophysiological concentrations in clinical infections. This study demonstrates that LPSs can be used as biomarkers for the highly sensitive detection of bacteria using SERS-based methods.