Cardiovascular development critical genes are key determinants in cardiovascular diseases. We hypothesize that SNPs in these genes may play critical roles in the development of hypertension. Therefore, we enrolled 516 paired hypertension patients and controls in a total of 2,742 subjects in a cross-sectional population study by the propensity score matching (PSM) method. Twenty-one SNPs from 5 cardiovascular developmental related genes were detected by the improved multiplex ligase detection reaction (iMLDR) method. Conditioned logistic regression under three different genetic models, namely, additive model, dominant model, and recessive model, was performed. The odds ratio (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used to estimate the associations of SNPs with hypertension. We found that the distribution of genotypes at rs833061, rs3025010, and rs699947 within the VEGFA gene and the distribution of alleles at rs3025010 in hypertension subjects were different from those in controls. Both rs833061 and rs3025010 were associated with hypertension in crude models, but only rs3025010 remains associated with hypertension after adjusting with confounding factors in the additive model and the dominant model. We also found that hypertension subjects with C/T and C/C genotypes at rs3025010 had lower SBP and DBP levels. In addition, rs3025010 could interact with rs6784267 within the CCM3 gene in the association. In conclusion, our findings suggest that rs3025010 may play a role in the pathogenesis of hypertension, which may be a potential target for individualized prevention and treatment of hypertension.