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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: Overexpression or activation of AKT is very well known to control cell growth, survival, and gene expression in solid tumors. Oridonin, an inflammatory medical and diterpenoid compound isolated from Rabdosia rubescens , has exhibited various pharmacologic and physiologic properties, including antitumor, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we demonstrated that oridonin is an inhibitor of AKT and suppresses proliferation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in vitro and in vivo . The role of AKT in ESCC was studied using immuno-histochemical analysis of a tumor microarray, the effect of AKT knockdown on cell growth, and treatment of cells with MK-2206, an AKT inhibitor. Oridonin blocked AKT kinase activity and interacted with the ATP-binding pocket of AKT. It inhibited growth of KYSE70, KYSE410, and KYSE450 esophageal cancer cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Oridonin induced arrest of cells in the G 2 –M cell-cycle phase, stimulated apoptosis, and increased expression of apoptotic biomarkers, including cleaved PARP, caspase-3, caspase-7, and Bim s in ESCC cell lines. Mechanistically, we found that oridonin diminished the phosphorylation and activation of AKT signaling. Furthermore, a combination of oridonin and 5-fluorouracil or cisplatin (clinical chemotherapeutic agents) enhanced the inhibition of ESCC cell growth. The effects of oridonin were verified in patient-derived xenograft tumors expressing high levels of AKT. In summary, our results indicate that oridonin acts as an AKT inhibitor to suppress the growth of ESCC by attenuating AKT signaling. Mol Cancer Ther; 17(7); 1540–53. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1535-7163
    Electronic ISSN: 1538-8514
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-03-20
    Description: A balance between Th17 cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs) is important for host immunity and immune tolerance. The underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we have identified Cdc42 as a central regulator of Th17/Treg balance. Deletion of Cdc42 in T cells enhanced Th17 differentiation but diminished induced Treg differentiation and suppressive function. Treg-specific deletion of Cdc42 decreased natural Tregs but increased effector T cells including Th17 cells. Notably, Cdc42-deficient Th17 cells became pathogenic associated with enhanced glycolysis and Cdc42-deficient Tregs became unstable associated with weakened glycolytic signaling. Inhibition of glycolysis in Cdc42-deficient Th17 cells diminished their pathogenicity and restoration of glycolysis in Cdc42-deficient Tregs rescued their instability. Intriguingly, Cdc42 deficiency in T cells led to exacerbated wasting disease in mouse models of colitis and Treg-specific deletion of Cdc42 caused early, fatal lymphoproliferative diseases. In summary, we show that Cdc42 is a bona fide regulator of peripheral tolerance through suppression of Th17 aberrant differentiation/pathogenicity and promotion of Treg differentiation/stability/function involving metabolic signaling and thus Cdc42 pathway might be harnessed in autoimmune disease therapy.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1767
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-6606
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-03-28
    Description: Cefotaxime is the first-line treatment for meningitis in neonates and young infants. However, limited data on cefotaxime cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations in neonates and young infants were available. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the penetration of cefotaxime into CSF in neonates and young infants. Blood and CSF samples were collected from neonates and young infants treated with cefotaxime using an opportunistic pharmacokinetic sampling strategy, and concentrations were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The analysis was performed using NONMEM and R software. Thirty neonates and young infants (postmenstrual age range, 25.4 to 47.4 weeks) were included. A total of 67 plasma samples and 30 CSF samples were available for analysis. Cefotaxime plasma and CSF concentrations ranged from 2.30 to 175.42 mg/liter and from 0.39 to 25.38 mg/liter, respectively. The median ratio of the CSF concentration to the plasma concentration was 0.28 (range, 0.06 to 0.76). Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated that 88.4% and 63.9% of hypothetical neonates treated with 50 mg/kg of body weight three times a day (TID) would reach the pharmacodynamic target (the percentage of the dosing interval that the free antimicrobial drug concentration remains above the MIC, 70%) using the standard EUCAST MIC susceptibility breakpoints of 2 mg/liter and 4 mg/liter, respectively. The penetration of cefotaxime into the CSF of neonates and young infants was evaluated using an opportunistic sampling approach. A dosage regimen of 50 mg/kg TID could cover the most causative pathogens with MICs of 〈2 mg/liter. Individual dosage adaptation was required for more resistant bacterial strains, such as Staphylococcus aureus .
    Print ISSN: 0066-4804
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-6596
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 4
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  PTCOG 48; Meeting of the Particle Therapy Co-Operative Group; 20090928-20091003; Heidelberg; DOC09ptcog232 /20090924/
    Publication Date: 2009-09-25
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 5
    Keywords: CELLS ; RISK ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; TANDEM MASS-SPECTROMETRY ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; DETERMINANTS ; REDUCTASE ; PLASMA HOMOCYSTEINE ; MODERATE FOLATE-DEPLETION ; DECREASES
    Abstract: DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that regulates gene expression and can be modified by one-carbon nutrients. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of folic acid (FA) fortification of the US food supply on leukocyte global DNA methylation and the relationship between DNA methylation, red blood cell (RBC) folate, and other one-carbon biomarkers among postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. We selected 408 women from the highest and lowest tertiles of RBC folate distribution matching on age and timing of the baseline blood draw, which spanned the pre- (1994-1995), peri- (1996-1997), or post-fortification (1998) periods. Global DNA methylation was assessed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and expressed as a percentage of total cytosine. We observed an interaction (P = 0.02) between fortification period and RBC folate in relation to DNA methylation. Women with higher (vs. lower) RBC folate had higher mean DNA methylation (5.12 vs. 4.99%; P = 0.05) in the pre-fortification period, but lower (4.95 vs. 5.16%;P = 0.03) DNA methylation in the post-fortification period. We also observed significant correlations between one-carbon biomarkers and DNA methylation in the pre-fortification period, but not in the peri- or post-fortification period. The correlation between plasma homocysteine and DNA methylation was reversed from the inverse (pre-fortification period) to the positive (post-fortification period) relationship. Our data suggest that (1) during FA fortification, higher RBC folate status is associated with a reduction in leukocyte global DNA methylation among postmenopausal women and; (2) the relationship between one-carbon biomarkers and global DNA methylation is dependent on folate availability.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24300587
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  • 6
    Keywords: LUNG-CANCER ; DOWN-REGULATION ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; DNA methylation ; CHROMATIN-REMODELING FACTORS ; RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN ; GROWTH ARREST ; CELL-CYCLE ARREST ; NUCLEAR RECEPTOR ; CD44 EXPRESSION
    Abstract: The SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex regulates gene expression and alters chromatin structures in an ATP-dependent manner. Recent sequencing efforts have shown mutations in BRG1 (SMARCA4), one of two mutually exclusive ATPase subunits in the complex, in a significant number of human lung tumor cell lines and primary non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) clinical specimens. To determine how BRG1 loss fuels tumor progression in NSCLC, molecular profiling was performed after restoration of BRG1 expression or treatment with a histone deacetylase inhibitor or a DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor in a BRG1-deficient NSCLC cells. Importantly, validation studies from multiple cell lines revealed that BRG1 reexpression led to substantial changes in the expression of CDH1, CDH3, EHF, and RRAD that commonly undergo silencing by other epigenetic mechanisms during NSCLC development. Furthermore, treatment with DNMT inhibitors did not restore expression of these transcripts, indicating that this common mechanism of gene silencing did not account for their loss of expression. Collectively, BRG1 loss is an important mechanism for the epigenetic silencing of target genes during NSCLC development. IMPLICATIONS: Inactivation of the SWI/SNF complex provides a novel mechanism to induce gene silencing during NSCLC development.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24445599
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  • 7
    Keywords: BIOMARKERS ; DNA methylation ; COLON-CANCER ; ATHEROSCLEROSIS ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; MALIGNANT-TRANSFORMATION ; FOLATE STATUS ; nutrient ; GUT MICROBIOTA ; PHOSPHOLIPID-METABOLISM
    Abstract: Few studies have examined associations between plasma choline metabolites and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Therefore, we investigated associations between plasma biomarkers of choline metabolism [choline, betaine, dimethylglycine and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO)] and CRC risk among postmenopausal women in a case-control study nested within the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. We selected 835 matched case-control pairs, and cases were further stratified by tumor site (proximal, distal, or rectal) and stage (local/regional or metastatic). CRC was assessed by self-report and confirmed by medical records over the mean 5.2y of follow-up. Baseline plasma choline metabolites were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression models, plasma choline tended to be positively associated with rectal cancer risk [OR (95% CI)highest vs. lowest quartile=2.44 (0.93-6.40);P-trend=0.08], while plasma betaine was inversely associated with CRC overall [0.68 (0.47-0.99);P-trend=0.01] and with local/regional tumors [0.64 (0.42-0.99);P-trend=0.009]. Notably, the plasma betaine:choline ratio was inversely associated with CRC overall [0.56 (0.39-0.82);P-trend=0.004] as well as with proximal [0.66 (0.41-1.06);P-trend=0.049], rectal [0.27 (0.10-0.78);P-trend=0.02] and local/regional [0.50 (0.33-0.76);P-trend=0.001] tumors. Finally, plasma TMAO, an oxidative derivative of choline produced by intestinal bacteria, was positively associated with rectal cancer [3.38 (1.25-9.16);P-trend=0.02] and with overall CRC risk among women with lower (vs. higher) plasma vitamin B12 levels (P-interaction=0.003). Collectively, these data suggest that alterations in choline metabolism, which may arise early in disease development, may be associated with higher risk of CRC. The positive association between plasma TMAO and CRC risk is consistent with an involvement of the gut microbiome in CRC pathogenesis.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25336191
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  • 8
    Keywords: HEALTH ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; COLON-CANCER ; PREDICTION ; MUTATION CARRIERS ; METAANALYSIS ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; TASK-FORCE ; CHROMOSOME 8Q24 ; AMERICAN-COLLEGE
    Abstract: BACKGROUND & AIMS: Risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) can be greatly reduced through screening. To aid in the development of screening strategies, we refined models designed to determine risk of CRC by incorporating information from common genetic susceptibility loci. METHODS: By using data collected from more than 12,000 participants in 6 studies performed from 1990 through 2011 in the United States and Germany, we developed risk determination models based on sex, age, family history, genetic risk score (number of risk alleles carried at 27 validated common CRC susceptibility loci), and history of endoscopic examinations. The model was validated using data collected from approximately 1800 participants in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, conducted from 1993 through 2001 in the United States. RESULTS: We identified a CRC genetic risk score that independently predicted which patients in the training set would develop CRC. Compared with determination of risk based only on family history, adding the genetic risk score increased the discriminatory accuracy from 0.51 to 0.59 (P = .0028) for men and from 0.52 to 0.56 (P = .14) for women. We calculated age-and sex-specific 10-year CRC absolute risk estimates based on the number of risk alleles, family history, and history of endoscopic examinations. A model that included a genetic risk score better determined the recommended starting age for screening in subjects with and without family histories of CRC. The starting age for high-risk men (family history of CRC and genetic risk score, 90%) was 42 years, and for low-risk men (no family history of CRC and genetic risk score, 10%) was 52 years. For men with no family history and a high genetic risk score (90%), the starting age would be 47 years; this is an intermediate value that is 5 years earlier than it would be for men with a genetic risk score of 10%. Similar trends were observed in women. CONCLUSIONS: By incorporating information on CRC risk alleles, we created a model to determine the risk for CRC more accurately. This model might be used to develop screening and prevention strategies.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25683114
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  • 9
    Keywords: PATHWAY ; DIFFERENTIATION ; QUERCETIN ; MUTATIONS ; adenocarcinoma ; GASTRIC-CANCER ; WNT ; BETA-CATENIN EXPRESSION ; TUMOR STEM-CELLS ; DYSREGULATION
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Investigations of folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism (FOCM) genes and gene-nutrient interactions with respect to colorectal cancer (CRC) risk are limited to candidate polymorphisms and dietary folate. This study comprehensively investigated associations between genetic variants in FOCM and CRC risk and whether the FOCM nutrient status modified these associations. METHODS: Two hundred eighty-eight candidate and tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 30 FOCM genes were genotyped for 821 incident CRC case-control matched pairs in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study cohort. FOCM biomarkers (red blood cell [RBC] folate, plasma folate, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate [PLP], vitamin B12, and homocysteine) and self-reported alcohol consumption were measured at the baseline. Conditional logistic regression was implemented; effect modification was examined on the basis of known enzyme-nutrient relations. RESULTS: Statistically significant associations were observed between CRC risk and functionally defined candidate SNPs of methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1 (MTHFD1; K134R), 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase reductase (MTRR; P450R), and PR domain containing 2 with ZNF domain (PRDM2; S450N) and a literature candidate SNP of thymidylate synthase (TYMS; g.676789A〉T; nominal P 〈 .05). In addition, suggestive associations were noted for tagging SNPs in cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS), dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 3beta (DNMT3B), methionine adenosyltransferase I alpha (MAT1A), MTHFD1, and MTRR (nominal P 〈 .05; adjusted P, not significant). Significant interactions between nutrient biomarkers and candidate polymorphisms were observed for 1) plasma/RBC folate and folate hydrolase 1 (FOLH1), paraoxonase 1 (PON1), transcobalamin II (TCN2), DNMT1, and DNMT3B; 2) plasma PLP and TYMS TS3; 3) plasma B12 and betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase 2 (BHMT2); and 4) homocysteine and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and alanyl-transfer RNA synthetase (AARS). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variants in FOCM genes are associated with CRC risk among postmenopausal women. FOCM nutrients continue to emerge as effect modifiers of genetic influences on CRC risk. Cancer 2015;121:3684-3691. (c) 2015 American Cancer Society.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26108676
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  • 10
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