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  • 1
    Keywords: Medicine ; Neurosciences ; Neuroradiology ; Animal anatomy ; Neurobiology ; Biomedicine ; Neurosciences ; Animal Anatomy / Morphology / Histology ; Neurobiology ; Neuroradiology ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Preface -- Acknowledgements -- Author Information -- Background and Methods -- Coronal sections of the tree shrew brain -- Horizontal sections of the tree shrew brain -- Sagittal sections of the tree shrew brain
    Abstract: This atlas is currently the most systematic and comprehensive atlas of the tree shrew brain. The purpose of this book is to help scientists acquire accurate coordinates of the brain regions of the tree shrew, which is becoming a popular animal model for a variety of human diseases. This atlas contains series of 192 coronal sections, 36 sagittal sections, and 49 horizontal sections using Nissl staining or acetylcholinesterase histochemistry as well as a series of diagrams in stereotaxic coordinates. Original photomicrographs are obtained at single-cell resolution. In addition, we also referred to magnetic resonance images acquired at 250 um intervals with a magnetic resonance scanner 9.4T. Many brain structures are first identified in tree shrews and accurately presented in a stereotaxic coordinate system. The Bregma coordinates system is used for the first time in this tree shrew brain atlas. The atlas represents the collaboration between two indispensable skills of brain research, neuroanatomy and stereotaxic surgery. It will be extensively used in neuroscience research, particularly tree shrew brain study, and will help graduate students and researchers understand brain anatomy and acquire accurate reference coordinates
    Pages: XIII, 588 p. 557 illus., 280 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9789811006111
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1600-079X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: To investigate whether free melatonin may be better suited to reveal age-related changes, we studied the circadian rhythm alterations in saliva melatonin levels during aging. Special attention was paid to the question as to how the free melatonin rhythms change in aging and when such changes take place. A total of 52 healthy volunteers participated in the study consisting of young, middle-aged, old and the oldest groups. In each subject, a total of 12 time-point salivary melatonin samples was taken over 24 hr. Of the 52 data sets, 51 exhibited significant circadian rhythm over 24 hr by using the base cosine function analysis to fit the data. A clear circadian rhythm of salivary melatonin was present in all age groups. The decline in nocturnal peak levels (amplitude) in salivary melatonin was found in old and the oldest subjects. Both the old and the oldest subjects showed an increased daytime (baseline) melatonin levels. The off-set melatonin levels were more than two times higher in the oldest group than that in the other groups indicating a delayed phase of salivary melatonin. Most strikingly, we found that a step-wise decrease in the circadian rhythms of saliva melatonin occurred early in life, around 40 yr of ages. The middle-aged subjects had only 60% of the amplitude of the young subjects. In addition, the middle-aged subjects showed the longest peak levels duration and the lowest daytime melatonin levels. The present study showed that the alterations in the circadian rhythms of salivary melatonin begin during middle-age. Our results showed that salivary melatonin measurement is a reliable, sensitive and easy method to monitor changes in the circadian rhythms of melatonin during the course of aging.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1600-079X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Neuropathology is the most reliable criterion for diagnosing Alzheimer's disease (AD). A well-established system for staging the spread of neuropathological changes in AD is available. The clinical use of a biomarker that reflects the neuropathological change occurring in brain tissue has not yet been established. Melatonin is a product that plays not only a major role in the regulation of the circadian rhythms but may also exert neuroprotective effects in AD. Melatonin levels were determined in ventricular postmortem cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 121 subjects. Braak staging and a modified Braak staging for cortex (MBSC) were used to evaluate the severity of AD neuropathology. The present study revealed that not only the Braak stages of AD, but also the MBSC were negatively correlated with CSF melatonin levels. By using MBSC, we now demonstrate for the first time that CSF melatonin levels were significantly decreased in the aged individuals with early neuropathological changes in the temporal cortex, where the AD process starts. Those individuals that did not have any neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) or neuritic plaque (NP) in the temporal cortex, had much higher melatonin levels (287 ± 68 and 280 ± 64 pg/mL, respectively) than those individuals that had a few NFTs and NPs (82 ± 4 and 39 ± 8 pg/mL, respectively) in the temporal cortex. These results suggest that the decrease in CSF melatonin levels may be an early event in the development of AD possibly occurring even before the clinical symptoms.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 378 (1995), S. 68-70 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Investigation of the genetics, gonads, genitalia or hormone level of transsexuals has not, so far, produced any results that explain their status1'2. In experimental animals, however, the same gonadal hormones that prenatally determine the morphology of the genitalia also influence the morphology ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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