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  • 1
    ISSN: 1520-4995
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-7373
    Keywords: CD44 variant isoforms ; membrane-cytoskeleton ; adhesion ; metastasis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary CD44s (standard form of CD44) is a transmembrane glycoprotein whose external domain displays extracellular matrix adhesion properties by binding both hyaluronic acid (HA) and collagen. The cytoplasmic domain of CD44s interacts with the cytoskeleton by binding directly to ankyrin. It has been shown that post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation (by protein kinase C), acylation (by acyl-transferase) and GTP-binding enhance CD44's interaction with cytoskeletal proteins. Most importantly, the interaction between CD44s and the cytoskeletal protein, ankyrin, is required for the modulation of CD44s cell surface expression and its adhesion function. Recently, a number of tumor cells and tissues have been shown to express CD44 variant (CD44v) isoforms. Using RT-PCR and DNA sequence analyses, we have found that unique CD44 splice variant isoforms are expressed in both prostate and breast cancer cell lines and carcinomas. Most importantly, intracellular ankyrin is preferentially accumulated underneath the patched/capped structures of CD44 variant isoform in both breast and prostate cancer cells attached to HA-coated plates. We propose that selective expression of CD44v isoforms unique for certain metastatic carcinomas and their interaction with the cytoskeleton may play a pivotal role in regulating tumor cell behavior during tumor development and metastasis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: assumed natural strain ; plate bending ; triangular ; finite element ; six-node ; Engineering ; Numerical Methods and Modeling
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: In this paper, a six-node triangular C0 plate bending element is developed by the assumed natural strain method. In the element, all the sampled natural transverse shear strains are chosen such that the latter has a favourable constraint index and the strains are optimized with respect to a linear pure moment field. The element passes the patch tests, yields satisfactory accuracy and shows no sign of shear locking in all the problems considered. Copyright © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0029-5981
    Keywords: finite element ; assumed strain formulation ; Mindlin/Reissner ; plate bending ; triangular ; Engineering ; Numerical Methods and Modeling
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: In this paper, a six-node triangular C0 plate bending element is developed by the assumed strain formulation. The sampled transverse shear strains in the element are chosen such that the latter has a favourable constraint index of shear locking and the strains are optimized with respect to a linear pure bending displacement/rotation field. It happens that the optimal strains are the mean strains along the element edges and medians. Numerical examples reveal that the element is free from shear locking and passes all the patch tests for plate bending elements. Moreover, the element accuracy is close to that of a state-of-the-art seven-node assumed strain element. © 1997 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: CD44 is a glycosylated adhesion molecule which may undergo alternative splicing of 10 possible exons to generate variant isoforms. A number of CD44 variant isoforms expressed by tumor cells have been correlated with metastatic and proliferative behavior. In this study, we have characterized CD44 isoform expression on three prostate cancer cell lines: ALVA-31, PPC-1, and LNCaP. Using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, we have found that ALVA-31 and PPC-1 cells express multiple CD44 isoforms, including CD44s (standard form), CD44E (epithelial form), and an exon 14-containing form. In addition, two smaller forms have been detected: one using an alternative donor splice site within exon 5, and a novel form omitting exon 5 entirely. The CD44 isoforms expressed by ALVA-31 and PPC-1 cells appear to be preferentially located on the cell surface. By contrast, LNCaP cells do not express any of the CD44 forms at the RNA or protein level. Both PPC-1 and ALVA-31 cells display tumorigenesis and invasiveness in nude mice, whereas LNCap cells exhibit a less malignant phenotype, suggesting a correlation between CD44 variant (CD44v) expression and aggressive prostate tumor behavior. Functional characterization reveals that CD44 mediates prostate cell adhesion to extracellular hyaluyronic acid (HA). In addition, the CD44 cytoplasmic domain binds specifically to ankyrin, a membrane cytoskeletal protein. Double immunofluorescence labeling and confocal microscopic analyses indicate that HA binding induces the HA receptor (i.e., CD44) to form capped structures. Importantly, intracellular ankyrin is preferentially accumulated underneath HA receptor-capped structures. These results suggest that cytoskeletal proteins such as ankyrin are closely associated with CD44-mediated signaling events induced by HA. Finally, HA-mediated transmembrane interactions between CD44 isoforms and cytoskeletal proteins (i.e. ankyrin) may play a pivotal role in regulating tumor cell behavior during human prostate cancer development. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1572-9338
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Economics
    Notes: Abstract Solver selection for many complex practical applications is a difficult problem due to the availability of a large number of heuristic procedures and the resulting heavy require-ments on the collection, storage and retrieval of information needed by the solvers. This paper presents the application of connectionist methods to aid the process of heuristic selection, control and management for the resource-constrained project scheduling problem with cash flows (RCPSPCF) which is a difficult combinatorial optimization problem. Many heuristic procedures have been developed for the RCPSPCF, with differing performance characteristics in different problem environments. This makes the task of choosing the most appropriate heuristic or heuristic category for a given instance of the problem a complex task. We apply neural networks to induce the relationship between project parameters and heuristic performance to guide the selection under different project environments. We also compare the results of the neural network approach with those from traditional statistical procedures. An innovative feature of our approach is the integration of statistical and opti-mization methods with neural networks to address data preprocessing, thereby improving the performance of the neural network. We demonstrate that neural network methodology can be employed both to extract information about project conditions as well as to provide predictions for novel cases. Extensive experimentation with network topologies and learn-ing parameters indicate that this approach has significant promise in identifying categories of heuristics that are appropriate for any instance of the problem, rather than selecting a single best heuristic.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Berkeley, Calif. : Berkeley Electronic Press (now: De Gruyter)
    ISSN: 1556-3758
    Source: Berkeley Electronic Press Academic Journals
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Solubilities are measured for natural tocopherols and fatty acid methyl esters(FAMEs) under partly isothermal, isobaric and isochoric conditions in the range of temperature of 40-60deg.C and pressure of 9.7-16.2MPa based on soybean de-odorizer(DOD) pretreatment, the separation factors between FAMEs and tocopherols are 3.1-5.4 in this study. Furthermore, three different technology projects are analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively of single column extraction (SCE), extraction and fractionation (EF), two-column extraction (TCE).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1520-4995
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-07-17
    Description: Given that Yes-associated protein (YAP) signaling acts as a critical survival input for hypoxic cancer cells in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), disruption of YAP function and the maintenance of hypoxia is an attractive way to treat HCC. Utilizing a cell-based YAP-TEAD luciferase reporter assay and functional analyses, we identified CT-707, a China-FDA approved multi-kinase inhibitor under clinical trial with remarkable inhibitory activity against YAP function. CT-707 exhibited prominent cytotoxicity under hypoxia on HCC cells, which was attributable to the inhibition of YAP signaling. CT-707 arrested tumor growth in HepG2, Bel-7402, and HCC patient-derived xenografts. Mechanistically, the inhibitory activity of CT-707 on YAP signaling was due to the interruption of hypoxia-activated IGF1R. Overall, these findings not only identify CT-707 as a promising hypoxia-targeting agent against HCC, but they also unveil IGF1R as a new modulator specifically regulating hypoxia-activated YAP signaling.Significance: CT-707 may represent a novel clinical approach for patients with HCC suffering poor drug response due to intratumor hypoxia. Cancer Res; 78(14); 3995–4006. ©2018 AACR.
    Print ISSN: 0008-5472
    Electronic ISSN: 1538-7445
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-02-14
    Description: The emergence and ongoing spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria puts humans and other species at risk for potentially lethal infections. Thus, novel antibiotics or alternative approaches are needed to target drug-resistant bacteria, and metabolic modulation has been documented to improve antibiotic efficacy, but the relevant metabolic mechanisms require more studies. Here,...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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