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  • 1
    Keywords: CELLS ; CELL ; Germany ; INHIBITION ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; COMPLEX ; MECHANISM ; DOMAIN ; FORM ; PARTICLES ; DEGRADATION ; ANTIVIRAL ACTIVITY ; HIV-1 VIF ; LEUKEMIA-VIRUS ; VIF ; 2 DISTINCT ; ANTIRETROVIRAL DEFENSE ; CYTIDINE DEAMINASES ; EDITING ENZYME APOBEC3G ; MURINE APOBEC3 ; SOCS-BOX ; TYPE-1 VIF
    Abstract: The APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases are part of the intrinsic defense of cells against retroviruses. Lentiviruses and spumaviruses have evolved essential accessory proteins, Vif and Bet, respectively, which counteract the APOBEC3 proteins. We show here that Bet of the Prototype foamy virus inhibits the antiviral APOBEC3C activity by a mechanism distinct to Vif: Bet forms a complex with APOBEC3C without inducing its degradation. Bet abolished APOBEC3C dimerization as shown by co-immunoprecipitation and cross-linking experiments. These findings implicate a physical interaction between Bet and the APOBEC3C. Subsequently, we identified the Bet interaction domain in human APOBEC3C in the predicted APOBEC3C dimerization site. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that Bet inhibits incorporation of APOBEC3Cs into retroviral particles. Bet likely achieves this by trapping APOBEC3C protein in complexes rendering them unavailable for newly generated viruses due to direct immobilization
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19074429
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  • 2
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; CELL ; Germany ; SYSTEM ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; CONTRAST ; TYPE-1 ; virus ; resistance ; HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS ; REPLICATION ; sensitivity ; HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS ; virion infectivity factor ; TRANSMISSION ; DEPLETION ; ENZYME APOBEC3G ; CYTIDINE DEAMINASES ; TYPE-1 VIF ; Type ; DOMESTIC CAT ; ANEMIA VIRUS ; ANTIRETROVIRAL ACTIVITY ; HIV-1 REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION ; PUMA-CONCOLOR
    Abstract: To get more insight into the role of APOBEC3 (A3) cytidine deaminases in the species-specific restriction of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) of the domestic cat, we tested the A3 proteins present in big cats (puma, lion, tiger, and lynx). These A3 proteins were analyzed for expression and sensitivity to the Vif protein of FIV. While A3Z3s and A3Z2-Z3s inhibited Delta vif FIV, felid A3Z2s did not show any antiviral activity against Delta vif FIV or wild-type (wt) FIV. All felid A3Z3s and A3Z2-Z3s were sensitive to Vif of the domestic cat FIV. Vif also induced depletion of felid A3Z2s. Tiger A3s showed a moderate degree of resistance against the Vif-mediated counter defense. These findings may imply that the A3 restriction system does not play a major role to prevent domestic cat FIV transmission to other Felidae. In contrast to the sensitive felid A3s, many nonfelid A3s actively restricted wt FIV replication. To test whether Vif(FIV) can protect also the distantly related human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), a chimeric HIV-1. Vif(FIV) was constructed. This HIV-1. VifFIV was replication competent in nonpermissive feline cells expressing human CD4/CCR5 that did not support the replication of wt HIV-1. We conclude that the replication of HIV-1 in some feline cells is inhibited only by feline A3 restriction factors and the absence of the appropriate receptor or coreceptor
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20444897
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  • 3
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Hosts are able to restrict viral replication to contain virus spread before adaptive immunity is fully initiated. Many viruses have acquired genes directly counteracting intrinsic restriction mechanisms. This phenomenon has led to a co-evolutionary signature for both the virus and host which often provides a barrier against interspecies transmission events. Through different mechanisms of action, but with similar consequences, spumaviral feline foamy virus (FFV) Bet and lentiviral feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) Vif counteract feline APOBEC3 (feA3) restriction factors that lead to hypermutation and degradation of retroviral DNA genomes. Here we examine the capacity of vif to substitute for bet function in a chimeric FFV to assess the transferability of anti-feA3 factors to allow viral replication. RESULTS: We show that vif can replace bet to yield replication-competent chimeric foamy viruses. An in vitro selection screen revealed that an engineered Bet-Vif fusion protein yields suboptimal protection against feA3. After multiple passages through feA3-expressing cells, however, variants with optimized replication competence emerged. In these variants, Vif was expressed independently from an N-terminal Bet moiety and was stably maintained. Experimental infection of immunocompetent domestic cats with one of the functional chimeras resulted in seroconversion against the FFV backbone and the heterologous FIV Vif protein, but virus could not be detected unambiguously by PCR. Inoculation with chimeric virus followed by wild-type FFV revealed that repeated administration of FVs allowed superinfections with enhanced antiviral antibody production and detection of low level viral genomes, indicating that chimeric virus did not induce protective immunity against wild-type FFV. CONCLUSIONS: Unrelated viral antagonists of feA3 cellular restriction factors can be exchanged in FFV, resulting in replication competence in vitro that was attenuated in vivo. Bet therefore may have additional functions other than A3 antagonism that are essential for successful in vivo replication. Immune reactivity was mounted against the heterologous Vif protein. We conclude that Vif-expressing FV vaccine vectors may be an attractive tool to prevent or modulate lentivirus infections with the potential option to induce immunity against additional lentivirus antigens.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 29769087
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  • 4
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; INHIBITOR ; CELL ; Germany ; human ; MODEL ; MODELS ; THERAPY ; SUPPORT ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; cell line ; LINES ; RELEASE ; INFECTION ; CONTRAST ; T cell ; T-CELL ; CELL-LINES ; TYPE-1 ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; ENTRY ; PARTICLES ; virus ; TRANSGENIC MICE ; VECTORS ; VECTOR ; CELL-LINE ; LINE ; EFFICIENT ; PATHOGENESIS ; US ; POLYPEPTIDE ; MURINE CELLS ; REPLICATION ; vaccination ; INFECTIVITY ; cell lines ; LUCIFERASE ; HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS ; CD4(+) T-CELLS ; ORIGIN ; INHIBITORS ; ANIMAL-MODELS ; THERAPIES ; VIRUS-INFECTION ; HIV ; ANIMAL-MODEL ; USA ; EVALUATE ; IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS ; INHIBIT ; animal ; microbiology ; animal model ; HUMAN MONOCYTES ; viral ; virology ; block ; CD4 RECEPTOR ; SOLUBLE CD4 ; OCCURS ; AIDS-LIKE DISEASE ; animal models ; ENZYME APOBEC3G ; HIV-1 INFECTION ; SCID-HU MOUSE ; VIF PROTEIN
    Abstract: The productive replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) occurs exclusively in defined cells of human or chimpanzee origin, explaining why heterologous animal models for HIV replication, pathogenesis, vaccination, and therapy are not available. This lack of an animal model for HIV-1 studies prompted us to examine the susceptibility of feline cells in order to evaluate the cat (Felis catus) as an animal model for studying HIV-1. Here, we report that feline cell lines harbor multiple restrictions with respect to HIV-1 replication. The feline CD4 receptor does not permit virus infection. Feline T-cell lines MYA-1 and FeT-1C showed postentry restrictions resulting in low HIV-1 luciferase reporter activity and low expression of viral Gag-Pol proteins when pseudotyped vectors were used. Feline fibroblastic CrFK and KE-R cells, expressing human CD4 and CCR5, were very permissive for viral entry and HIV-long terminal repeat-driven expression but failed to support spreading infection. KE-R cells displayed a profound block with respect to release of HIV-1 particles. In contrast, CrFK cells allowed very efficient particle production; however, the CrFK cell-derived HIV-1 particles had low specific infectivity. We subsequently identified feline apolipoprotein B-editing catalytic polypeptide 3 (feAPOBEC3) proteins as active inhibitors of HIV-1 particle infectivity. CrFK cells express at least three different APOBEC3s: APOBEC3C, APOBEC3H, and APOBEC3CH. While the feAPOBEC3C did not significantly inhibit HIV-1, the feAPOBEC3H and feAPOBEC3CH induced G to A hypermutations of the viral cDNA and reduced the infectivity similar to 10- to similar to 40-fold
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17459941
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  • 5
    Keywords: INHIBITOR ; Germany ; human ; SUPPORT ; HISTORY ; SITE ; SITES ; GENE ; GENES ; GENOME ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; COMPLEX ; COMPLEXES ; SEQUENCE ; SEQUENCES ; virus ; genetics ; leukemia ; HUMAN GENOME ; EVOLUTION ; REPLICATION ; SELECTION ; foamy virus ; heredity ; IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS TYPE-1 ; INHIBITORS ; MULTIPLE SEQUENCE ALIGNMENT ; ASSEMBLIES ; assembly ; PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS ; rodents ; virion infectivity factor ; TRANSMISSION ; LEUKEMIA-VIRUS ; microbiology ; ENGLAND ; EXPANSION ; host ; biotechnology ; ENZYME APOBEC3G ; mammals ; ADAPTIVE EVOLUTION ; MAXIMUM-LIKELIHOOD
    Abstract: Background: Over the past years a variety of host restriction genes have been identified in human and mammals that modulate retrovirus infectivity, replication, assembly, and/or cross-species transmission. Among these host-encoded restriction factors, the APOBEC3 (A3; apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing catalytic polypeptide 3) proteins are potent inhibitors of retroviruses and retrotransposons. While primates encode seven of these genes (A3A to A3H), rodents carry only a single A3 gene. Results: Here we identified and characterized several A3 genes in the genome of domestic cat (Felis catus) by analyzing the genomic A3 locus. The cat genome presents one A3H gene and three very similar A3C genes (a-c), probably generated after two consecutive gene duplications. In addition to these four one-domain A3 proteins, a fifth A3, designated A3CH, is expressed by readthrough alternative splicing. Specific feline A3 proteins selectively inactivated only defined genera of feline retroviruses: Bet-deficient feline foamy virus was mainly inactivated by feA3Ca, feA3Cb, and feA3Cc, while feA3H and feA3CH were only weakly active. The infectivity of Vif-deficient feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus was reduced only by feA3H and feA3CH, but not by any of the feA3Cs. Within Felidae, A3C sequences show significant adaptive selection, but unexpectedly, the A3H sequences present more sites that are under purifying selection. Conclusion: Our data support a complex evolutionary history of expansion, divergence, selection and individual extinction of antiviral A3 genes that parallels the early evolution of Placentalia, becoming more intricate in taxa in which the arms race between host and retroviruses is harsher
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18315870
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0012-821X
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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