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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; CELL ; LUNG ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; validation ; DNA ; BIOMARKERS ; cell cycle ; CELL-CYCLE ; SEQUENCE ; ASSOCIATION ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; SUSCEPTIBILITY LOCUS ; VARIANTS ; HEALTH ; NUMBER ; REPAIR ; smoking ; p53 ; cancer risk ; FRANCE ; genotyping ; DNA repair ; TP53 ; ONCOLOGY ; VARIANT ; METAANALYSIS ; XRCC1 ; SINGLE-NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; biomarker ; analysis ; methods ; DNA repair genes ; pooled analysis ; USA ; cancer research ; CANCER-RISK ; OGG1 ; NOV ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; association study ; XRCC3 ; discussion ; POOLED-ANALYSIS ; CONSORTIUM ; genetic variants ; GENOME-WIDE ; APEX1
    Abstract: Background: The International Lung Cancer Consortium was established in 2004. To clarify the role of DNA repair genes in lung cancer susceptibility, we conducted a pooled analysis of genetic variants in DNA repair pathways, whose associations have been investigated by at least 3 individual studies. Methods: Data from 14 studies were pooled for 18 sequence variants in 12 DNA repair genes, including APEX1, OGG1, XRCC1, XRCC2, XRCC3, ERCC1, XPD, XPF, XPG, XPA, MGMT, and TP53. The total number of subjects included in the analysis for each variant ranged from 2,073 to 13,955 subjects. Results: Four of the variants were found to be weakly associated with lung cancer risk with borderline significance: these were XRCC3 T241M [heterozygote odds ratio (OR), 0.89; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.79-0.99 and homozygote OR, 0.84; 95% Cl, 0.71-1.00] based on 3,467 cases and 5,021 controls from 8 studies, XPD K751Q (heterozygote OR, 0.99; 95% Cl, 0.89-1.10 and homozygote OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.02-1.39) based on 6,463 cases and 6,603 controls from 9 studies, and TP53 R72P (heterozygote OR, 1.14; 95% Cl, 1.00-1.29 and homozygote OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.02-1.42) based on 3,610 cases and 5,293 controls from 6 studies. OGG1 S326C homozygote was suggested to be associated with lung cancer risk in Caucasians (homozygote OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.01-1.79) based on 2,569 cases and 4,178 controls from 4 studies but not in Asians. The other 14 variants did not exhibit main effects on lung cancer risk. Discussion: In addition to data pooling, future priorities of International Lung Cancer Consortium include coordinated genotyping and multistage validation for ongoing genome-wide association studies. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008;17(11):3081-9)
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18990748
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; CELL ; LUNG ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; TOOL ; CANCER MORTALITY ; EXPOSURE ; MORTALITY ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; METABOLISM ; ACTIVATION ; RISK-FACTORS ; CARCINOGENESIS ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; single nucleotide polymorphism ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; risk factors ; smoking ; METABOLIC-ACTIVATION ; GENOTYPES ; PHENOTYPE ; CARCINOGENS ; ANTIOXIDANT ; SMOKERS ; non-small cell lung cancer ; glutathione-S-transferase ; molecular epidemiology ; OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE ; PHASE-II ; DNA-ADDUCTS ; ONCOLOGY ; SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; SNPs ; GSTM1 ; CYP1A1 ; METHYLENETETRAHYDROFOLATE REDUCTASE ; LEVEL ; analysis ; PHASE ; phase II metabolism ; RISK-FACTOR ; population-based ; TOOLS ; ENGLAND ; CYP1B1 ; NAT2 ; GENE POLYMORPHISMS ; GENE POLYMORPHISM ; NORWAY ; NUCLEOTIDE ; COMT
    Abstract: Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide with smoking and occupational exposure to carcinogenic compounds as the major risk factors. Susceptibility to lung cancer is affected by existence of polymorphic genes controlling the levels of metabolic activation and detoxification of carcinogens. We have investigated 105 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 31 genes from the phase I and phase II metabolism genes and antioxidant defense genes for association with the risk of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a Norwegian population-based study. Our results indicate that several SNPs in the phase I genes, CYP1B1, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4, are associated with the risk of NSCLC. Moreover, significant associations with multiple SNPs in the phase II genes ALDH2, COMT, EPHX1, SOD2, NAT1, NAT2, GSTM3, GSTP1, GSTT2 and MPO were also found. We prioritized our findings by use of two different recently developed Bayesian statistical tools, employing conservative prior probabilities of association. When we corrected for multiple testing using these statistical tools, three novel associations of NSCLC risk with SNPs in the CYP1B1 (Arg48Gly), COMT (Val158Met) and GSTT2 (Met139Ile) genes were found noteworthy. However, only four of the previously reported associations with polymorphisms in the GSTP1 (Ala14Val), SOD2 (Val16Ala), EPHX1 (His139Arg) genes and the NAT1 fast acetylator phenotype remained significantly associated with lung cancer
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18258609
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  • 3
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; carcinoma ; CELL ; LUNG ; MODEL ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; METABOLISM ; CARCINOGENESIS ; ASSOCIATION ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; VARIANTS ; AGE ; DNA-REPAIR ; smoking ; ADHESION ; CELL-ADHESION ; inflammation ; ONCOLOGY ; case-control study ; REGRESSION ; ASSOCIATIONS ; VARIANT ; CANDIDATE GENES ; METHYLENETETRAHYDROFOLATE REDUCTASE ; INCREASED RISK ; SQUAMOUS-CELL ; CHINESE POPULATION ; XUAN-WEI ; METHYLENE-TETRAHYDROFOLATE REDUCTASE ; GENE POLYMORPHISMS ; Genetic ; CENTRAL-EUROPE ; SEQUENCE VARIANTS
    Abstract: Background. Analysis of candidate genes in individual studies has had only limited success in identifying particular gene variants that are conclusively associated with lung cancer risk. In the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO), we conducted a coordinated genotyping study of 10 common variants selected because of their prior evidence of an association with lung cancer. These variants belonged to candidate genes from different cancer-related pathways including inflammation (IL1B), folate metabolism (MTHFR), regulatory function (AKAP9 and CAMKK1), cell adhesion (SEZL6) and apoptosis (FAS, FASL, TP53, TP53BP1 and BAT3). Methods. Genotype data from 15 ILCCO case-control studies were available for a total of 8431 lung cancer cases and 11 072 controls of European descent and Asian ethnic groups. Unconditional logistic regression was used to model the association between each variant and lung cancer risk. Results. Only the association between a non-synonymous variant of TP53BP1 (rs560191) and lung cancer risk was significant (OR = 0.91, P = 0.002). This association was more striking for squamous cell carcinoma (OR = 0.86, P = 6 x 10(-4)). No heterogeneity by center, ethnicity, smoking status, age group or sex was observed. In order to confirm this association, we included results for this variant from a set of independent studies (9966 cases/11 722 controls) and we reported similar results. When combining all these studies together, we reported an overall OR = 0.93 (0.89-0.97) (P = 0.001). This association was significant only for squamous cell carcinoma [OR = 0.89 (0.85-0.95), P = 1 x 10(-4)]. Conclusion. This study suggests that rs560191 is associated to lung cancer risk and further highlights the value of consortia in replicating or refuting published genetic associations
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20106900
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  • 4
    Keywords: UNITED-STATES ; BEHAVIOR ; SMOKERS ; CLUSTER ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; GENETIC-VARIATION ; NICOTINE DEPENDENCE ; INTERPLAY ; CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 ; QUANTITY
    Abstract: Background: Recent meta-analyses show strong evidence of associations among genetic variants in CHRNA5 on chromosome 15q25, smoking quantity, and lung cancer. This meta-analysis tests whether the CHRNA5 variant rs16969968 predicts age of smoking cessation and age of lung cancer diagnosis. Methods: Meta-analyses examined associations between rs16969968, age of quitting smoking, and age of lung cancer diagnosis in 24 studies of European ancestry (n = 29 072). In each dataset, we used Cox regression models to evaluate the association between rs16969968 and the two primary phenotypes (age of smoking cessation among ever smokers and age of lung cancer diagnosis among lung cancer case patients) and the secondary phenotype of smoking duration. Heterogeneity across studies was assessed with the Cochran Q test. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: The rs16969968 allele (A) was associated with a lower likelihood of smoking cessation (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.91 to 0.98, P =.0042), and the AA genotype was associated with a four-year delay in median age of quitting compared with the GG genotype. Among smokers with lung cancer diagnoses, the rs16969968 genotype (AA) was associated with a four-year earlier median age of diagnosis compared with the low-risk genotype (GG) (HR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.12, P = 1.1*10(-5)). Conclusion: These data support the clinical significance of the CHRNA5 variant rs16969968. It predicts delayed smoking cessation and an earlier age of lung cancer diagnosis in this meta-analysis. Given the existing evidence that this CHRNA5 variant predicts favorable response to cessation pharmacotherapy, these findings underscore the potential clinical and public health importance of rs16969968 in CHRNA5 in relation to smoking cessation success and lung cancer risk.d: Recent meta-analyses show strong evidence of associations among genetic variants in CHRNA5 on chromosome 15q25, smoking quantity, and lung cancer. This meta-analysis tests whether the CHRNA5 variant rs16969968 predicts age of smoking cessation and age of lung cancer diagnosis.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25873736
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  • 5
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Recent meta-analyses show that individuals with high risk variants in CHRNA5 on chromosome 15q25 are likely to develop lung cancer earlier than those with low-risk genotypes. The same high-risk genetic variants also predict nicotine dependence and delayed smoking cessation. It is unclear whether smoking cessation confers the same benefits in terms of lung cancer risk reduction for those who possess CHRNA5 risk variants versus those who do not. METHODS: Meta-analyses examined the association between smoking cessation and lung cancer risk in 15 studies of individuals with European ancestry who possessed varying rs16969968 genotypes (N=12,690 ever smokers, including 6988 cases of lung cancer and 5702 controls) in the International Lung Cancer Consortium. RESULTS: Smoking cessation (former vs. current smokers) was associated with a lower likelihood of lung cancer (OR=0.48, 95%CI=0.30-0.75, p=0.0015). Among lung cancer patients, smoking cessation was associated with a 7-year delay in median age of lung cancer diagnosis (HR=0.68, 95%CI=0.61-0.77, p=4.9 *10-10). The CHRNA5 rs16969968 risk genotype (AA) was associated with increased risk and earlier diagnosis for lung cancer, but the beneficial effects of smoking cessation were very similar in those with and without the risk genotype. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that quitting smoking is highly beneficial in reducing lung cancer risks for smokers regardless of their CHRNA5 rs16969968 genetic risk status. Smokers with high-risk CHRNA5 genotypes, on average, can largely eliminate their elevated genetic risk for lung cancer by quitting smoking- cutting their risk of lung cancer in half and delaying its onset by 7years for those who develop it. These results: 1) underscore the potential value of smoking cessation for all smokers, 2) suggest that CHRNA5 rs16969968 genotype affects lung cancer diagnosis through its effects on smoking, and 3) have potential value for framing preventive interventions for those who smoke.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27543155
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  • 6
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified three chromosomal regions at 15q25, 5p15, and 6p21 as being associated with the risk of lung cancer. To confirm these associations in independent studies and investigate heterogeneity of these associations within specific subgroups, we conducted a coordinated genotyping study within the International Lung Cancer Consortium based on independent studies that were not included in previous genome-wide association studies. METHODS: Genotype data for single-nucleotide polymorphisms at chromosomes 15q25 (rs16969968, rs8034191), 5p15 (rs2736100, rs402710), and 6p21 (rs2256543, rs4324798) from 21 case-control studies for 11 645 lung cancer case patients and 14 954 control subjects, of whom 85% were white and 15% were Asian, were pooled. Associations between the variants and the risk of lung cancer were estimated by logistic regression models. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Associations between 15q25 and the risk of lung cancer were replicated in white ever-smokers (rs16969968: odds ratio [OR] = 1.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.21 to 1.32, P(trend) = 2 x 10(-26)), and this association was stronger for those diagnosed at younger ages. There was no association in never-smokers or in Asians between either of the 15q25 variants and the risk of lung cancer. For the chromosome 5p15 region, we confirmed statistically significant associations in whites for both rs2736100 (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.10 to 1.20, P(trend) = 1 x 10(-10)) and rs402710 (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.09 to 1.19, P(trend) = 5 x 10(-8)) and identified similar associations in Asians (rs2736100: OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.12 to 1.35, P(trend) = 2 x 10(-5); rs402710: OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.27, P(trend) = .007). The associations between the 5p15 variants and lung cancer differed by histology; odds ratios for rs2736100 were highest in adenocarcinoma and for rs402710 were highest in adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinomas. This pattern was observed in both ethnic groups. Neither of the two variants on chromosome 6p21 was associated with the risk of lung cancer. CONCLUSIONS: In this international genetic association study of lung cancer, previous associations found in white populations were replicated and new associations were identified in Asian populations. Future genetic studies of lung cancer should include detailed stratification by histology.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20548021
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  • 7
    Keywords: LUNG-CANCER ; RISK-FACTORS ; COMMON VARIANT ; CHINESE POPULATION ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; MACULAR DEGENERATION ; CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY LOCI ; GENETIC-VARIANTS ; QUANTITATIVE-TRAIT LOCI ; DISCORDANT SIB PAIRS
    Abstract: Genetic case-control association studies often include data on clinical covariates, such as body mass index (BMI), smoking status, or age, that may modify the underlying genetic risk of case or control samples. For example, in type 2 diabetes, odds ratios for established variants estimated from low-BMI cases are larger than those estimated from high-BMI cases. An unanswered question is how to use this information to maximize statistical power in case-control studies that ascertain individuals on the basis of phenotype (case-control ascertainment) or phenotype and clinical covariates (case-control-covariate ascertainment). While current approaches improve power in studies with random ascertainment, they often lose power under case-control ascertainment and fail to capture available power increases under case-control-covariate ascertainment. We show that an informed conditioning approach, based on the liability threshold model with parameters informed by external epidemiological information, fully accounts for disease prevalence and non-random ascertainment of phenotype as well as covariates and provides a substantial increase in power while maintaining a properly controlled false-positive rate. Our method outperforms standard case-control association tests with or without covariates, tests of gene x covariate interaction, and previously proposed tests for dealing with covariates in ascertained data, with especially large improvements in the case of case-control-covariate ascertainment. We investigate empirical case-control studies of type 2 diabetes, prostate cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, age-related macular degeneration, and end-stage kidney disease over a total of 89,726 samples. In these datasets, informed conditioning outperforms logistic regression for 115 of the 157 known associated variants investigated (P-value = 1x10(-9)). The improvement varied across diseases with a 16% median increase in chi(2) test statistics and a commensurate increase in power. This suggests that applying our method to existing and future association studies of these diseases may identify novel disease loci.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23144628
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