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  • 1
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; GROWTH-FACTOR ; INHIBITOR ; proliferation ; tumor ; CELL ; CELL-PROLIFERATION ; FACTOR RECEPTOR ; Germany ; IN-VIVO ; INHIBITION ; KINASE ; THERAPY ; TYROSINE KINASE ; GENE ; GENES ; HYBRIDIZATION ; PROTEIN ; DRUG ; TUMORS ; LINES ; PATIENT ; LIGAND ; prognosis ; REDUCTION ; CONTRAST ; CELL-LINES ; GROWTH-FACTOR RECEPTOR ; PHOSPHORYLATION ; chromosome ; TARGET ; NO ; IN-SITU ; LESIONS ; AMPLIFICATION ; MUTATION ; METASTASIS ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; CELL-LINE ; LINE ; MUTATIONS ; HOMOLOG ; US ; LIGANDS ; TARGETS ; FLUORESCENCE ; POOR-PROGNOSIS ; SARCOMA ; fluorescence in situ hybridization ; PTEN ; TP53 ; EPIDERMAL-GROWTH-FACTOR ; ONCOLOGY ; TUMOR-SUPPRESSOR ; THERAPIES ; INCREASE ; EGFR ; cell proliferation ; LEVEL ; analysis ; SUPPRESSOR ; tumor suppressor gene ; NERVE ; USA ; DRUGS ; KINASE INHIBITOR ; epidermal growth factor receptor ; GROWTH-FACTOR-RECEPTOR ; receptor tyrosine kinase ; SOMATIC MUTATIONS ; comparison ; ErbB2 ; neurofibromatosis ; TARGETED THERAPY ; tumor suppressor ; EGF ; TRASTUZUMAB ; FACTOR-RECEPTOR ; growth factor ; MPNST ; NEU PROTOONCOGENE ; SCHWANN-CELLS
    Abstract: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are sarcomas with poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Evidence for a role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and receptor tyrosine kinase erbB2 in MPNSTs led us to systematically study these potential therapeutic targets in a larger tumor panel (n=37). Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed increased EGFR dosage in 28% of MPNSTs. ERBB2 and three tumor suppressor genes (PTEN [phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10], CDKN2A [cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A], and TP53 [tumor protein p53]) were frequently lost or reduced. Reduction of CDKN2A was linked to appearance of metastasis. Comparison of corresponding neurofibromas and MPNSTs revealed an increase in genetic lesions in MPNSTs. No somatic mutations were found within tyrosine-kinase-encoding exons of EGFR and ERBB2. However, at the protein level, expression of EGFR and erbB2 was frequently detected in MPNSTs. EGFR expression was significantly associated with increased EGFR gene dosage. The EGFR ligands transforming growth factor a and EGF were more strongly expressed in MPNSTs than in neurofibromas. The effects of the drugs erlotinib and trastuzumab, which target EGFR and erbB2, were determined on MPNST cell lines. In contrast to trastuzumab, erlotinib mediated dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation. EGF-induced EGFR phosphorylation was attenuated by erlotinib. Summarized, our data indicate that EGFR and erbB2 are potential targets in treatment of MPNST patients. Neuro-Oncology 10, 946-957, 2008 (Posted to Neuro-Oncology [serial online], Doc. D07-00250, July 23, 2008. URL http://neuro-oncology.dukejournals.org; DOI: 10.1215/15228517-2008-053)
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18650488
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; IN-VIVO ; INHIBITION ; MUTATION ; MOUSE MODEL ; SUPPRESSOR GENE ; MAMMALIAN TARGET ; NEUROFIBROMATOSIS TYPE-1 ; LHERMITTE-DUCLOS-DISEASE ; SOMA SIZE
    Abstract: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNST) are aggressive sarcomas that develop in about 10% of patients with the genetic disease neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Molecular alterations contributing to MPNST formation have only partially been resolved. Here we examined the role of Pten, a key regulator of the Pi3k/Akt/mTOR pathway, in human MPNST and benign neurofibromas. Immunohistochemistry showed that Pten expression was significantly lower in MPNST (n = 16) than in neurofibromas (n = 16) and normal nervous tissue. To elucidate potential mechanisms for Pten down-regulation or Akt/mTOR activation in MPNST we performed further experiments. Mutation analysis revealed absence of somatic mutations in PTEN (n = 31) and PIK3CA (n = 38). However, we found frequent PTEN promotor methylation in primary MPNST (11/26) and MPNST cell lines (7/8) but not in benign nerve sheath tumours. PTEN methylation was significantly associated with early metastasis. Moreover, we detected an inverse correlation of Pten-regulating miR-21 and Pten protein levels in MPNST cell lines. The examination of NF1-/- and NF1+/+ Schwann cells and fibroblasts showed that Pten expression is not regulated by NF1. To determine the significance of Pten status for treatment with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin we treated 5 MPNST cell lines with rapamycin. All cell lines were sensitive to rapamycin without a significant correlation to Pten levels. When rapamycin was combined with simvastatin a synergistic anti-proliferative effect was achieved. Taken together we show frequent loss/reduction of Pten expression in MPNST and provide evidence for the involvement of multiple Pten regulating mechanisms.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
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  • 3
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; SURVIVAL ; tumor ; CELL ; ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH-FACTOR ; Germany ; IN-VIVO ; KINASE ; PATHWAY ; THERAPY ; TYROSINE KINASE ; GENE ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; GENES ; PROTEIN ; DRUG ; TUMORS ; LINES ; TRANSDUCTION ; PATIENT ; MARKER ; BIOLOGY ; CELL-LINES ; signal transduction ; TYPE-1 ; TYROSINE KINASE INHIBITOR ; ALPHA ; PROGRESSION ; AMPLIFICATION ; COMPARATIVE GENOMIC HYBRIDIZATION ; COPY NUMBER ; gene expression ; INDUCED APOPTOSIS ; NUMBER ; EFFICACY ; SIGNAL-TRANSDUCTION ; CELL-LINE ; LINE ; MARKERS ; REGION ; RECEPTORS ; IMBALANCES ; OVEREXPRESSION ; cell lines ; VEGF ; C-KIT ; NERVE SHEATH TUMORS ; signaling ; MAPK ; SCIENCE ; drug targeting ; KIT ; receptor tyrosine kinase ; RECEPTOR TYROSINE KINASES ; PDGFR ; neurofibromatosis ; CONSEQUENCES ; SU11248 ; COEXPRESSION ; Type ; LOOP ; RECEPTOR-TYROSINE-KINASE ; VEGFR-2 ; MAPK PATHWAY
    Abstract: Background: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are highly aggressive tumors which originate from Schwann cells and develop in about 10% of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) patients. The five year survival rate is poor and more effective therapies are needed. Sunitinib is a drug targeting receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) like PDGFR alpha, c-Kit and VEGFR-2. These genes are structurally related and cluster on chromosomal segment 4q12. Methodology/Principal Findings: Here we characterize this region by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) in MPNST. Our probe set encompasses the 3 adjacent RTK genes (PDGFRA, KIT, KDR) and 6 flanking genes. We found amplification of several genes within this region in a subset of MPNST and MPNST cell lines. Transcript and protein expression of PDGFRA matched well with its increased copy number suggesting a central role of PDGFRA within the amplicon. Studying the effect of sunitinib on 5 MPNST cell lines revealed that cell line S462 harboring the 4q12 amplicon was extremely sensitive to the drug with an IC50 below 1.0 mu M. Moreover, sunitinib induced apoptosis and prevented PDGFAA induced signaling via PDGFR alpha as determined by western blotting. Co-expression of VEGF and its receptor VEGFR-2 (KDR) was present in MPNST cell lines suggesting an autocrine loop. We show that VEGF triggered signal transduction via the MAPK pathway, which could be blocked by sunitinib. Conclusions/Significance: Since multiple receptors targeted by sunitinib are expressed or over-expressed by MPNST cells sunitinib appears as an attractive drug for treatment of MPNST patients. Presence of the 4q12 amplicon and subsequent over-expression of PDGFRA might serve as predictive markers for efficacy of sunitinib
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20686603
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  • 4
    Keywords: pathology ; THERAPIES ; FAMILIES ; MEMBER ; NEW-YORK ; FAMILY ; EXPRESSION ; THERAPY ; EGFR ; GENETIC ALTERATION ; USA
    Type of Publication: Meeting abstract published
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  • 5
    Keywords: USA ; TYROSINE KINASES ; TYROSINE ; Genetic ; TARGETED THERAPY ; TUMORS ; RECEPTOR ; EXPRESSION ; tumor ; KINASE ; THERAPY ; TYROSINE KINASE ; pathology ; PERIPHERAL-NERVE ; THERAPIES
    Type of Publication: Meeting abstract published
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