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  • 1
    Keywords: Oncology ; Human Genetics ; Medicine ; Cytology ; Metabolism ; Cancer Research ; Human Genetics ; Molecular Medicine ; Cell Biology ; Metabolomics ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Preface -- Molecular and Cell Biology of Cancer when cells break the rules and hijack their own planet -- Cancer as an Evolutionary Process -- Cell signaling in cancer -- The cell cycle, cytoskeleton and cancer -- Genomic Instability: DNA Repair and Cancer -- Cell metabolism in cancer – an energetic switch -- Cancer immunoediting and hijacking of the immune system -- Angiogenesis - vessels recruitment by tumor cells -- Tumor niche disruption and metastasis: the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) -- Case studies - Molecular Pathology perspective and impact on oncologic patients’ management -- Index
    Abstract: This textbook takes you on a journey to the basic concepts of cancer biology. It combines developmental, evolutionary and cell biology perspectives, to then wrap-up with an integrated clinical approach. The book starts with an introductory chapter, looking at cancer in a nut shell. The subsequent chapters are detailed and the idea of cancer as a mass of somatic cells undergoing a micro-evolutionary Darwinian process is explored. Further, the main Hanahan and Weinberg “Hallmarks of Cancer” are revisited. In most chapters, the fundamental experiments that led to key concepts, connecting basic biology and biomedicine are highlighted. In the book’s closing section all of these concepts are integrated in clinical studies, where molecular diagnosis as well as the various classical and modern therapeutic strategies are addressed. The book is written in an easy-to-read language, like a one-on-one conversation between the writer and the reader, without compromising the scientific accuracy. Therefore, this book is suited not only for advanced undergraduates and master students but also for patients or curious lay people looking for a further understanding of this shattering disease
    Pages: IX, 216 p. 71 illus. in color. : online resource.
    Edition: 1st ed. 2019.
    ISBN: 9783030118129
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Physical map ; Escherichia coli rnb ; RNA
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Ribonuclease II (encoded byrnb) is one of the two main exonucleases involved in mRNA degradation inEscherichia coli. We report the precise physical mapping ofrnb to 29 min on the chromosomal map in the vicinity ofpyrF, and clarify the genetic and physical maps of thisE. coli chromosomal region. The results were confirmed by the construction of a strain partially deleted forrnb.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Ribonuclease II (RNase II), encoded by the rnb gene, is one of the two major Escherichia coli exonucleases involved in mRNA degradation. Some of the ribonucleases implicated in this process have recently been shown to be inter-regulated. In this paper we studied the effects of the endonucleases RNase E and RNase III in rnb expression. We have shown that RNase E cleaves the rnb message internally: when this ribonuclease is inactivated rnb mRNA accumulates with a concomitant increase in RNase II activity. RNase III also affects RNase II expression but in an indirect way. We discuss these implications for the regulation of mRNA degradation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The degradation of mRNA plays a central role in the control of protein synthesis. In Escherichia coli, the rnb gene encodes ribonuclease II (RNase II), one of the two main exonucleases involved in mRNA decay. We have constructed strain CMA201, in which the rnb promoter region and the gene were deleted from the chromosome and replaced by a tettr cassette. This is the first rnb absolute deletion mutant that shows the complete absence of rnb-specific mRNA. This strain has growth characteristics similar to the wild-type, even though it has no RNase II activity, and it should be useful in studies of mRNA metabolism.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: We have determined the nucleotide sequence of gene fosB of plasmid pIP1842, which confers resistant to fosfomycin in Staphylococcus epidermidis BM2641. The resistance gene was identified as a coding sequence of 417 bases pairs corresponding to a protein with a calculated Mw of 16 345 daltons. This value is in good agreement with that of 15 000, estimated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of a bacterial cell-free coupled transcription-translation system. The fosB gene product exhibits 48% sequence homology with the fosfomycin resistance protein FOSA of Enterobacteriaceae. The substitutions are scattered throughout indicating that the two corresponding genes have diverged from a common ancestor. Downstream from fosB is located an open reading frame that was partially sequenced. The deduced amino-acid sequence was 50% homologous to REP α1, a protein involved in the replication of the Enterococcus faecalis plasmid pAMα1.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In Escherichia coli, ribonucleases are effectors that rapidly modulate the levels of mRNAs for adaptation to a changing environment. Factors involved in the regulation of these ribonucleases can be relevant for mRNA stability. RNase II is one of the main ribonucleases responsible for exonucleolytic activity in E. coli extracts. We have identified and characterized a new E. coli gene, which was named gmr (gene modulating RNase II). The results demonstrate that a deletion of gmr can be associated with changes in RNase II levels and activity. Western analysis and exoribonuclease activity assays showed a threefold increase in RNase II in the gmr deletion strain. Gmr does not affect RNase II mRNA, but modulates RNase II at the level of protein stability. RNase II protein turnover is slower in the gmr deletion strain. We also show that RNase II levels change in different media, and that this regulation is abolished in a strain lacking gmr. The data presented here show that the regulation of ribonucleolytic activity can depend on growth conditions, and this regulation can be mediated by factors that are not RNases.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: PNPase and RNase II are the key regulatory exo-nucleases controlling mRNA decay in Escherichia coli The rnb transcripts were found to proceed through the terminator and PNPase was found to be involved in the 3’to 5’degradation of rnb mRNA. Analysis of these longer 3’termini revealed that they are located in UA-rich regions. Comparison of single and double mutants suggested that PNPase and RNase II could have different roles in the degradation of these unstructured regions. We have shown that RNase II levels can vary over a fivefold range in haploid cells and that its expression depends on PNPase levels. PNPase-deficient strains were found to have a 2–2.5-fold increase in RNase M activity, while PNPase-overproducing strains reduced the rnb message and RNase II levels. Conversely, the amount of PNPase in the rnb deletion strain was approximately twofold higher than that in the wild-type strain. These observations suggest that the two main exonu-cleases are inter-regulated through a fine tuning mechanism. We discuss the implications of these results with regard to mRNA degradation and cell metabolism.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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