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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxin ; broad bean ; cultivars ; fungi ; hybrid ; mycotoxins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract One hundred different cultivars and lines of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) seed samples were inoculated with Aspergillus flavus Link (CMI 102135) to determine varietal differences which may support or resist aflatoxin production. Thin-layer chromatographic analysis of the chloroform extracts of the different seed samples revealed that 11 cultivars/lines were highly resistant to seed invasion and aflatoxin production while 9 cultivars/lines showed partial resistance. The remaining 80 samples were susceptible to the establishment of A. flavus and aflatoxin accumulation. All the resistant cultivars/lines seed samples were inoculated also with three local isolates of fungi namely; Stachybotrys chartarum (Ehrenb. ex Link) Hughes, Aspergillus ochraceus Wilhelm, and Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. The resistant seed samples were also resistant for colonization with these fungi and mycotoxin formation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Almond ; Cashew nut ; Chestnut ; Fungal flora ; Hazelnut ; Mycotoxins ; Pistachio nut ; Walnut
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A wide range of moulds representing several genera and species, was recorded in this study from 5 seed samples of each almond, cashew nut, chestnut, hazelnut, pistachio nut and walnut collected from different markets in Ar' Ar, Saudi Arabia. The total counts of fungi were widely fluctuated between 1960–7704 and 1948–7434 colonies/g dry seeds on glucose-Czapek's and glycerol agar media at 28°C, respectively, and represented twenty genera, 53 species and 2 varieties of fungi. The prevalent fungi on the 2 agar media wereAspergillus flavus, A. niger andPenicillium chrysogenum. On glucose-Czapek's agar,Rhizopus stolonifer andAspergillus flavus var.columnaris were isolated from all 6 kinds of nut,A. parasiticus from 5 kinds andA. fumigatus from 4 kinds with high frequencies.Eurotium species were completely absent on glucose-Czapek's agar but they were isolated in high frequency from all kinds of nut on glycerol agar medium. The different nut samples were analyzed by thin layer chromatography for the presence of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 & G2, citrinin, ochratoxins, patulin, sterigmatocystin, diacetoxyscirpenol, T-2 toxin and zearalenone. Aflatoxins B1 & G1 were detected in 3 out of the 5 samples tested of chestnut at concentrations ranging between 20 to 60 µg/kg. All other samples of almond, cashew nut, hazelnut, pistachio nut, and walnut that were analyzed were mycotoxin free.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: aflatoxin ; cow pea cultivars ; garden pea ; mycotoxins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Different cultivars of cow pea and garden pea seeds were surveyed for susceptibility or resistance towards the toxigenic and aflatoxin-producing mould (Aspergillus flavus IMI 102135). The results show that aflatoxin production varied among the different cultivars of both cow pea and garden pea. Morphological and histological characters of the different cultivars tested did not show any relation between colour, shape and size of seeds and the amount of aflatoxin produced. The chemical analysis of the different constituents obtained from both seed coats and seed kernels with susceptible, partially resistant and resistant cow pea and garden pea cultivars revealed that the resistant cultivars of cow pea (namely: Balady cultivar) and garden pea (namely: Melting Sugar cultivar) contained lower levels of sodium and higher levels of phosphate and potassium.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: selenite ; tellurite ; aflatoxin ; Aspergillus parasiticus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Aspergillus parasiticus var. globosus IMI 120920 was able to grow in presence of different concentrations tested (0.052–4.0%) of sodium selenite or concentrations up to 2.0% potassium tellurite. Growth of the fungus was decreased greatly by the increase of metals concentrations. Dark colour colony and black reverse were formed in presence of tellurite while reddish gray to grayish red colony colour and brownish red to orange red reverse were formed in presence of selenite. The fungal biomass was slightly decreased at lower concentrations and highly inhibited at higher concentrations of selenite or tellurite. Selenite slightly stimulated aflatoxin formation at lower concentrations and highly inhibited it at higher concentrations. Aflatoxin production was decreased greatly by increasing tellurite concentrations. Obvious malformations were observed in the morphological features of the fungus in presence of different levels of selenite or tellurite.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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