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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-03-28
    Description: The broad-spectrum C-8-cyano-fluoroquinolone finafloxacin displays enhanced activity under acidic conditions. This phase II clinical study compared the efficacies and safeties of finafloxacin and ciprofloxacin in patients with complicated urinary tract infection and/or pyelonephritis. A 5-day regimen with 800 mg finafloxacin once a day (q.d.) (FINA05) had results similar to those of a 10-day regimen with 800 mg finafloxacin q.d. (FINA10). Combined microbiological and clinical responses at the test-of-cure (TOC) visit were 70% for FINA05, 68% for FINA10, and 57% for a 10-day ciprofloxacin regimen (CIPRO10) in 193 patients (64 for FINA05, 68 for FINA10, and 61 for CIPRO10) of the microbiological intent-to-treat (mITT) population. Additionally, the clinical effects of ciprofloxacin on patients with an acidic urine pH (80% of patients) were reduced, whereas the effects of finafloxacin were unchanged. Finafloxacin was safe and well tolerated. Overall, 43.4% of the patients in the FINA05 group, 42.7% in the FINA10 group, and 54.2% in the CIPRO10 group experienced mostly mild and treatment-emergent but unrelated adverse events. A short-course regimen of 5 days of finafloxacin resulted in high eradication and improved clinical outcome rates compared to those for treatment with ciprofloxacin for 10 days. In contrast to those of ciprofloxacin, the clinical effects of finafloxacin were not reduced by acidic urine pH. Hospitalized adults were randomized 1:1:1 to finafloxacin treatment (800 mg q.d.) for either 5 or 10 days or to ciprofloxacin treatment (400 mg/500 mg b.i.d.) for 10 days with an optional switch from intravenous (i.v.) to oral administration at day 3. The primary endpoint was the combined microbiological and clinical response at the TOC visit in the microbiological intent-to-treat population. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifier NCT01928433.)
    Print ISSN: 0066-4804
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-6596
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-03-28
    Description: Finafloxacin is a novel fluoroquinolone with increased antibacterial activity at acidic pH and reduced susceptibility to several resistance mechanisms. A phase II study revealed a good efficacy/safety profile in patients with complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs), while the pharmacokinetics was characterized by highly variable concentration-versus-time profiles, suggesting the need for an elaborated pharmacokinetic model. Data from three clinical trials were evaluated: 127 healthy volunteers were dosed orally ( n = 77) or intravenously ( n = 50), and 139 patients with cUTI received finafloxacin intravenously. Plasma (2,824 samples from volunteers and 414 samples from patients) and urine (496 samples from volunteers and 135 samples patients) concentrations were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). NONMEM was used to build a population pharmacokinetic model, and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships were investigated via simulations and logistic regression. A two-compartment model with first-order elimination described the data best (central volume of distribution [ V c ] and peripheral volume of distribution [ V p ] of 47 liters [20%] and 43 liters [67%], respectively, and elimination clearance and intercompartmental clearance of 21 liters/h [54%] and 2.8 liters/h [57%], respectively [median bootstrap estimates {coefficients of variation}]). V c increased with body surface area, and clearance was reduced in patients (–29%). Oral absorption was described best by parallel first- and zero-order processes (bioavailability of 75%). No pharmacodynamic surrogate parameter of clinical/microbiological outcome could be identified, which depended exclusively on the MIC of the causative pathogens. Despite the interindividual variability, the present data set does not support covariate-based dose adjustments. Based on the favorable safety and efficacy data, the clinical relevance of the observed variability appears to be limited. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifier NCT01928433.)
    Print ISSN: 0066-4804
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-6596
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-03-28
    Description: Two phase II studies were performed with patients with uncomplicated urinary tract infections (uUTIs) and complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs) or acute pyelonephritis (PN) to compare finafloxacin (300 mg twice a day [b.i.d.] orally for uUTI and 800 mg once a day [q.d.] intravenously [i.v.] for cUTI/PN) and ciprofloxacin (250 mg b.i.d. orally for uUTI and 400 mg b.i.d. i.v. for cUTI/PN). The early response to the study medications was evaluated in the microbiological intent-to-treat population (mITT) at day 3. A total of 21% of the isolates were ciprofloxacin resistant, 13.7% were primed pathogens carrying a mutation(s) potentially fostering fluoroquinolone resistance development, and 7.1% produced extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). Finafloxacin demonstrated very good early clinical activity, with microbiological eradication rates of 88.6% ( n = 132), compared to 78.7% ( n = 61) for ciprofloxacin, and 69.6% ( n = 23), compared to 35.7% ( n = 14) for ciprofloxacin, in patients with ciprofloxacin-resistant uropathogens; 94.1% ( n = 17), compared to 80.0% ( n = 10) for ciprofloxacin, in patients infected with uropathogens primed for fluoroquinolone resistance uropathogens; and 91.7% ( n = 11), compared to 0% for ciprofloxacin, in patients infected with ESBL producers. Finafloxacin demonstrated early and rapid activity against uropathogens, including fluoroquinolone-resistant and/or multiresistant pathogens or ESBL producers, while ciprofloxacin was less active against this subset of resistant pathogens. Susceptibilities of pathogens were quantitated by broth microdilution. Isolates were subgrouped according to their susceptibility patterns, in particular first-step quinolone resistance, quinolone resistance, and ESBL production. Eradication was defined as the elimination or reduction of study entry pathogens to 〈10 3 CFU/ml in urine culture. (The studies described in this paper have been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifiers NCT00722735 and NCT01928433.)
    Print ISSN: 0066-4804
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-6596
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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