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  • 1
    Keywords: RISK ; HEALTH ; CONSUMPTION ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; DRINKING ; PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; HORMONE-RECEPTOR STATUS ; ESTROGEN-RECEPTORS
    Abstract: Alcohol intake has been associated to breast cancer in pre and postmenopausal women; however results are inconclusive regarding tumor hormonal receptor status, and potential modifying factors like age at start drinking. Therefore, we investigated the relation between alcohol intake and the risk of breast cancer using prospective observational data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Up to 334,850 women, aged 35-70 years at baseline, were recruited in ten European countries and followed up an average of 11 years. Alcohol intake at baseline and average lifetime alcohol intake were calculated from country-specific dietary and lifestyle questionnaires. The study outcomes were the Hazard ratios (HR) of developing breast cancer according to hormonal receptor status. During 3,670,439 person-years, 11,576 incident breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Alcohol intake was significantly related to breast cancer risk, for each 10 g/day increase in alcohol intake the HR increased by 4.2% (95% CI: 2.7-5.8%). Taking 0 to 5 g/day as reference, alcohol intake of 〉5 to 15 g/day was related to a 5.9% increase in breast cancer risk (95% CI: 1-11%). Significant increasing trends were observed between alcohol intake and ER+/PR+, ER-/PR-, HER2- and ER-/PR-HER2- tumors. Breast cancer risk was stronger among women who started drinking prior to first full-time pregnancy. Overall, our results confirm the association between alcohol intake and both hormone receptor positive and hormone receptor negative breast tumors, suggesting that timing of exposure to alcohol drinking may affect the risk. Therefore, women should be advised to control their alcohol consumption.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25677034
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  • 2
    Abstract: Alcohol intake has been related to an increased risk of breast cancer (BC) while dietary fiber intake has been inversely associated to BC risk. A beneficial effect of fibers on ethanol carcinogenesis through their impact on estrogen levels is still controversial. We investigated the role of dietary fiber as a modifying factor of the association of alcohol and breast cancer using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). This study included 334,850 women aged 35-70 years at baseline enrolled in the ten countries of the EPIC study and followed up for 11.0 years on average. Information on fiber and alcohol intake at baseline and average lifetime alcohol intake were calculated from country-specific dietary and lifestyle questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HR) of developing invasive breast cancer according to different levels of alcohol and fiber intake were computed. During 3,670,439 person-years, 11,576 incident breast cancer cases were diagnosed. For subjects with low intake of fiber (〈18.5 g/day), the risk of BC per 10g/day of alcohol intake was 1.06 (1.03-1.08) while among subjects with high intake of fiber (〉24.2 g/day) the risk of BC was 1.02 (0.99-1.05) (test for interaction p=0.011). This modulating effect was stronger for fiber from vegetables. Our results suggest that fiber intake may modulate the positive association of alcohol intake and BC. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27599758
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  • 3
    Abstract: Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent findings for the association between B vitamins and breast cancer (BC) risk. We investigated the relationship between biomarkers of folate and vitamin B12 and the risk of BC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Plasma concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 were determined in 2,491 BC cases individually matched to 2,521 controls among women who provided baseline blood samples. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios by quartiles of either plasma B vitamin. Subgroup analyses by menopausal status, hormone receptor status of breast tumors (ER, PR, and HER2), alcohol intake, and MTHFR polymorphisms (677C〉T and 1298A〉C) were also performed. Plasma levels of folate and vitamin B12 were not significantly associated with the overall risk of BC or by hormone receptor status. A marginally positive association was found between vitamin B12 status and BC risk in women consuming above the median level of alcohol (ORQ4-Q1 = 1.26; 95% CI 1.00-1.58; Ptrend = 0.05). Vitamin B12 status was also positively associated with BC risk in women with plasma folate levels below the median value (ORQ4-Q1 = 1.29; 95% CI 1.02-1.62; Ptrend = 0.03). Overall, folate and vitamin B12 status was not clearly associated with BC risk in this prospective cohort study. However, potential interactions between vitamin B12 and alcohol or folate on the risk of BC deserve further investigation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27905104
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1238
    Keywords: Tracheal colonisation Head trauma Risk factor Early-onset Ventilator-associated pneumonia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Objective: To investigate if tracheal colonisation within 24 h of intubation is a risk factor for developing early-onset ventilator-associated pneumonia (EP) in patients with head trauma. Design: A prospective study in an intensive care unit of a university hospital. Population: One hundred intubated patients were included with head trauma and Glasgow coma score at admission 〈12. Methods: We took tracheal aspirate samples within 24 h of intubationand performed a protected bronchoalveolar mini-lavage when clinical diagnosis of pneumonia was made. Measurements and results: On admission time 68 patients (68%) were colonised in trachea, 22 patients were colonised by Staphylococcus aureus, 20 by Haemophilus influenzae, six by Streptococcus pneumoniae and 20 by gram-negative bacilli. The incidence of EP was 26%, and the microorganisms involved were Staph. aureus (44%), H. influenzae (31%), Strep. pneumoniae (12%), and gram-negative bacilli (13%). A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the tracheal colonization by Staph. aureus, H. influenzae or Strep. pneumoniae within 24 h of intubation was an independent risk factor for developing EP (odds ratio: 28.9; 95% confidence interval: 1.59–52.5). Conclusion: Colonisation of the trachea within 24 h of intubation by Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae or Streptococcus pneumoniae is a risk factor for developing EP in patients with head trauma.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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