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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; BLOOD ; MODEL ; MODELS ; COHORT ; RISK ; RISKS ; PATIENT ; RISK-FACTORS ; BINDING ; CYCLE ; ASSOCIATION ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; hormone ; WOMEN ; risk factors ; cancer risk ; case-control studies ; EPIC ; nutrition ; ESTRADIOL ; SERUM ; SINGLE ; DEFICIENCY ; case-control study ; ASSOCIATIONS ; RE ; MAMMARY-GLAND ; ESTROGEN ; case control studies ; INTERVAL ; TESTS ; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED-TRIAL ; PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; SERUM-LEVELS ; ADRENAL ANDROGENS ; ESTROGEN PLUS PROGESTIN ; FEMALE NOBLE RATS ; HEALTHY POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; HORMONE LEVELS ; ONE-YEAR PERIOD ; REPLACEMENT THERAPY
    Abstract: Background. Contrasting etiologic hypotheses about the role of endogenous sex steroids in breast cancer development among premenopausal women implicate ovarian androgen excess and progesterone deficiency, estrogen excess, estrogen and progesterone excess, and both an excess or lack of adrenal androgens (dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA] or its sulfate [DHEAS]) as risk factors. We conducted a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort to examine associations among premenopausal serum concentrations of sex steroids and subsequent breast cancer risk. Methods: Levels of DHEAS, (Delta 4-)androstenedione, testosterone, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured in single prediagnostic serum samples from 370 premenopausal women who subsequently developed breast cancer (case patients) and from 726 matched cancer-free control subjects. Levels of progesterone, estrone, and estradiol were also measured for the 285 case patients and 555 matched control subjects who had provided information about the day of menstrual cycle at blood donation. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate relative risks of breast cancer by quartiles of hormone concentrations. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Increased risks of breast cancer were associated with elevated serum concentrations of testosterone (odds ratio [OR] for highest versus lowest quartile = 1.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.16 to 2.57; P-trend =.01), androstenedione (OR for highest versus lowest quartile = 1.569 95% CI = 1.05 to 2.32; P-trend =.01), and DHEAS (OR for highest versus lowest quartile = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.02 to 2.14; P-trend =.10) but not SHBG. Elevated serum progesterone concentrations were associated with a statistically significant reduction in breast cancer risk (OR for highest versus lowest quartile = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.38 to 0.98; P-trend =.06). The absolute risk of breast cancer for women younger than 40 followed up for 10 years was estimated at 2.6% for those in the highest quartile of serum testosterone versus 1.5% for those in the lowest quartile; for the highest and lowest quartiles of progesterone, these estimates were 1.7% and 2.6%, respectively. Breast cancer risk was not statistically significantly associated with serum levels
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15900045
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; carcinoma ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; RISK ; ASSOCIATION ; bladder cancer ; BLADDER-CANCER ; CONSUMPTION ; EPIC ; LIFE-STYLE ; FOOD FREQUENCY QUESTIONNAIRE ; COFFEE ; DRINKING-WATER ; RELATIVE VALIDITY ; FLUID ; LOWER URINARY-TRACT ; DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS ; urothelial cell carcinomas
    Abstract: Results from previous studies investigating the association between fluid intake and urothelial cell carcinomas (UCC) are inconsistent. We evaluated this association among 233,236 subjects in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), who had adequate baseline information on water and total fluid intake. During a mean follow-up of 9.3 years, 513 first primary UCC occurred. At recruitment, habitual fluid intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Multivariable hazard ratios were estimated using Cox regression stratified by age, sex and center and adjusted for energy intake, smoking status, duration of smoking and lifetime intensity of smoking. When using the lowest tertile of intake as reference, total fluid intake was not associated with risk of all UCC (HR 1.12; 95% CI 0.86-1.45, p-trend = 0.42) or with risk of prognostically high-risk UCC (HR 1.28; 95% CI 0.85-1.93, p-trend = 0.27) or prognostically low-risk UCC (HR 0.93; 95% CI 0.65-1.33, p-trend = 0.74). No associations were observed between risk of UCC and intake of water, coffee, tea and herbal tea and milk and other dairy beverages. For prognostically low-risk UCC suggestions of an inverse association with alcoholic beverages and of a positive association with soft drinks were seen. Increased risks were found for all UCC and prognostically low-risk UCC with higher intake of fruit and vegetable juices. In conclusion, total usual fluid intake is not associated with UCC risk in EPIC. The relationships observed for some fluids may be due to chance, but further investigation of the role of all types of fluid is warranted
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20715171
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; BLOOD ; carcinoma ; FOLLOW-UP ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; POPULATION ; RISK ; SITE ; SITES ; ASSOCIATION ; antibodies ; PLASMA ; AGE ; cancer risk ; POPULATIONS ; STOMACH ; adenocarcinoma ; case-control studies ; ESOPHAGUS ; meat ; nutrition ; SUBSITE ; ONCOLOGY ; case-control study ; REGRESSION ; METAANALYSIS ; LEVEL ; case control studies ; analysis ; methods ; prospective ; odds ratio ; CANCER-RISK ; CIRCULATING LEVELS ; Helicobacter pylori ; stomach cancer ; SERUM PEPSINOGEN-I ; chronic atrophic gastritis ; pepsinogen ; SEROPOSITIVITY
    Abstract: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), atrophic gastritis, dietary and lifestyle factors have been associated with gastric cancer (GC). These factors have been evaluated in a large case-control study nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition carried out in 9 countries, including the Mediterranean area. Participants, enrolled in 1992-1998, provided life-style and dietary information and a blood sample (360,000; mean follow-up: 6.1 years). For 233 GC cases diagnosed after enrolment and their 910 controls individually-matched by center, gender, age and blood donation date H. pylori antibodies (antilysate and antiCagA) and plasma Pepsinogen A (PGA) were measured by ELISA methods. Severe chronic atrophic gastritis (SCAG) was defined as PGA circulating levels 〈 22 mu g/l. Overall, in a conditional logistic regression analysis adjusted for education, smoke, weight and consumption of total vegetables, fruit, red and preserved meat, H. pylori seropositivity was associated with GC risk. Subjects showing only antibodies anti-H. pylori lysate, however, were not at increased risk, while those with antiCagA antibodies had a 3.4-fold increased risk. Overall, the odds ratio associated with SCAG was 3.3 (95% CI 2.2-5.2). According to site, the risk of noncardia GC associated with CagA seropositivity showed a further increase (OR 6.5; 95% CI 3.3-12.6); on the other hand, a ten-fold increased risk of cardia GC was associated with SCAG (OR 11.0; 95% C1 3.0-40.9). These results support the causal relationship between H. pylori CagA+ strains infection, and GC in these European populations even after taking into account dietary habits. This association was limited to distal GC, while serologically defined SCAG was strongly associated with cardia GC, thus suggesting a divergent risk pattern for these 2 sites. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17131317
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