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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-03-26
    Description: Brazil has experienced an unprecedented epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV), with ~30,000 cases reported to date. ZIKV was first detected in Brazil in May 2015, and cases of microcephaly potentially associated with ZIKV infection were identified in November 2015. We performed next-generation sequencing to generate seven Brazilian ZIKV genomes sampled from four self-limited cases, one blood donor, one fatal adult case, and one newborn with microcephaly and congenital malformations. Results of phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses show a single introduction of ZIKV into the Americas, which we estimated to have occurred between May and December 2013, more than 12 months before the detection of ZIKV in Brazil. The estimated date of origin coincides with an increase in air passengers to Brazil from ZIKV-endemic areas, as well as with reported outbreaks in the Pacific Islands. ZIKV genomes from Brazil are phylogenetically interspersed with those from other South American and Caribbean countries. Mapping mutations onto existing structural models revealed the context of viral amino acid changes present in the outbreak lineage; however, no shared amino acid changes were found among the three currently available virus genomes from microcephaly cases. Municipality-level incidence data indicate that reports of suspected microcephaly in Brazil best correlate with ZIKV incidence around week 17 of pregnancy, although this correlation does not demonstrate causation. Our genetic description and analysis of ZIKV isolates in Brazil provide a baseline for future studies of the evolution and molecular epidemiology of this emerging virus in the Americas.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Faria, Nuno Rodrigues -- Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva -- Kraemer, Moritz U G -- Souza, Renato -- Cunha, Mariana Sequetin -- Hill, Sarah C -- Theze, Julien -- Bonsall, Michael B -- Bowden, Thomas A -- Rissanen, Ilona -- Rocco, Iray Maria -- Nogueira, Juliana Silva -- Maeda, Adriana Yurika -- Vasami, Fernanda Giseli da Silva -- Macedo, Fernando Luiz de Lima -- Suzuki, Akemi -- Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro -- Cruz, Ana Cecilia Ribeiro -- Nunes, Bruno Tardeli -- Medeiros, Daniele Barbosa de Almeida -- Rodrigues, Daniela Sueli Guerreiro -- Nunes Queiroz, Alice Louize -- da Silva, Eliana Vieira Pinto -- Henriques, Daniele Freitas -- Travassos da Rosa, Elisabeth Salbe -- de Oliveira, Consuelo Silva -- Martins, Livia Caricio -- Vasconcelos, Helena Baldez -- Casseb, Livia Medeiros Neves -- Simith, Darlene de Brito -- Messina, Jane P -- Abade, Leandro -- Lourenco, Jose -- Carlos Junior Alcantara, Luiz -- de Lima, Maricelia Maia -- Giovanetti, Marta -- Hay, Simon I -- de Oliveira, Rodrigo Santos -- Lemos, Poliana da Silva -- de Oliveira, Layanna Freitas -- de Lima, Clayton Pereira Silva -- da Silva, Sandro Patroca -- de Vasconcelos, Janaina Mota -- Franco, Luciano -- Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira -- Vianez-Junior, Joao Lidio da Silva Goncalves -- Mir, Daiana -- Bello, Gonzalo -- Delatorre, Edson -- Khan, Kamran -- Creatore, Marisa -- Coelho, Giovanini Evelim -- de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber -- Tesh, Robert -- Pybus, Oliver G -- Nunes, Marcio R T -- Vasconcelos, Pedro F C -- 090532/Z/09/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 095066/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 102427/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- MR/L009528/1/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- R24 AT 120942/AT/NCCIH NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 15;352(6283):345-9. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf5036. Epub 2016 Mar 24.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Technological Innovation, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, PA 67030-000, Brazil. Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK. ; Department of Arbovirology and Hemorrhagic Fevers, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, Para State, Brazil. ; Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK. ; Instituto Adolfo Lutz, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil. ; Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. ; Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK. Metabiota, San Francisco, CA 94104, USA. ; Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ), Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. ; Centre of Post Graduation in Collective Health, Department of Health, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil. ; Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98121, USA. Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. ; Center for Technological Innovation, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, PA 67030-000, Brazil. ; Laboratorio de AIDS and Imunologia Molecular, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. ; Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ; Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ; Brazilian Ministry of Health, Brasilia, Brazil. ; Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA. ; Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK. Metabiota, San Francisco, CA 94104, USA. oliver.pybus@zoo.ox.ac.uk marcionunesbrasil@yahoo.com.br pedrovasconcelos@iec.pa.gov.br. ; Center for Technological Innovation, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, PA 67030-000, Brazil. Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA. oliver.pybus@zoo.ox.ac.uk marcionunesbrasil@yahoo.com.br pedrovasconcelos@iec.pa.gov.br. ; Department of Arbovirology and Hemorrhagic Fevers, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, Para State, Brazil. oliver.pybus@zoo.ox.ac.uk marcionunesbrasil@yahoo.com.br pedrovasconcelos@iec.pa.gov.br.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27013429" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aedes/virology ; Americas/epidemiology ; Animals ; *Disease Outbreaks ; Female ; Genome, Viral/genetics ; Humans ; Incidence ; Insect Vectors/virology ; Microcephaly/*epidemiology/virology ; Molecular Epidemiology ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutation ; Pacific Islands/epidemiology ; Phylogeny ; Pregnancy ; RNA, Viral/genetics ; Sequence Analysis, RNA ; Travel ; Zika Virus/classification/*genetics/isolation & purification ; Zika Virus Infection/*epidemiology/transmission/*virology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0167-2738
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0378-4371
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0378-4371
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Morphological and physiological age changes are described in human salivary glands. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is neoangiogenic growth factor found in normal salivary glands. Considering the neoangiogenic properties of VEGF and its important function in inflammation, repair and, probably, in oral mucosa homeostasis, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ageing on the immunolocalization of VEGF in minor salivary glands. Paraffin-embedded tissue blocks containing normal labial salivary glands were retrieved and classified according to the patients’ age in two groups (〈 20 and 〉 40-year-old). The biotin–streptavidin–peroxidase system was used to detect the VEGF antigen. The results demonstrated that the mean level of VEGF immunoreaction in the young group was not statistically different from the old group when compared by the Mann–Whitney U-test (P = 0·54). This may indicate that although salivary flow reduction may develop in old patients, some properties of the salivary glands may not be affected.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0022-3697
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1468-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The increasing recognition and importance of fungal infections, the difficulties encountered in their treatment and the increase in resistance to antifungals have stimulated the search for therapeutic alternatives. Essential oils have been used empirically. The essential oils of Thymus (Thymus vulgaris, T. zygis subspecies zygis and T. mastichina subspecies mastichina) have often been used in folk medicine. The aim of the present study was to evaluate objectively the antifungal activity of Thymus oils according to classical bacteriological methodologies − determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration (MLC) − as well as flow cytometric evaluation. The effect of essential oils upon germ tube formation, an important virulence factor, was also studied. The mechanism of action was studied by flow cytometry, after staining with propidium iodide. The chemical composition of the essential oils was investigated by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). The antifungal activity of the major components (carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene and 1,8-cineole) and also possible interactions between them were also investigated. The essential oils of T. vulgaris and T. zygis showed similar antifungal activity, which was greater than T. mastichina. MIC and MLC values were similar for all the compounds tested. At MIC values of the essential oils, propidium iodide rapidly penetrated the majority of the yeast cells, indicating that the fungicidal effect resulted primarily from an extensive lesion of the cell membrane. Concentrations below the MIC values significantly inhibited germ tube formation. This study describes the potent antifungal activity of the essential oils of Thymus on Candida spp., warranting future therapeutical trials on mucocutaneous candidosis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1524-475X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The hypercatabolism after massive pediatric burns has been effectively treated with recombinant human growth hormone, an anabolic agent that stimulates protein synthesis and abrogates growth arrest. While experimental studies have shown increased potential for fibrosis induced by growth hormone therapy, adverse effects on human scars have not been investigated. Our aim was to evaluate hypertrophic scar formation in 62 patients randomized to receive injections of 0.05 mg/kg/day of recombinant human growth hormone or placebo, from discharge until 1 year after burn. Scar scales were used to evaluate scar-severity at discharge, 6, 9, 12, and 18–24 months after burn, by three observers blinded to treatment. Computer-assisted planimetry allowed quantification of percentage of hypertrophic scar formation. Types I and III collagens were localized and quantified in scars and normal skin of patients from both groups, using immunohistochemistry with confocal laser microscopy analysis. Insulin-like growth factor-1 blood levels helped assess compliance. Statistical analysis showed that scar hypertrophy significantly increased from 6 to 12 months after injury in both groups, while decreasing at 18–24 months postburn. Types I and III collagens were statistically increased in the reticular layer of scars from both groups when compared to paired normal skin. Insulin-like growth factor-1 was significantly increased in the recombinant human growth factor-treated group. No differences were seen when recombinant human growth factor and control groups were compared using the scar scales, planimetry, or immunohistochemistry. We concluded that recombinant human growth hormone therapy did not adversely affect scar formation and should not contraindicate the administration of recombinant human growth hormone as a therapeutic approach to severely burned children.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-2665
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-2665
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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