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  • 1
    ISSN: 1433-3023
    Keywords: Abdominal straining ; Detrusor contractility ; Detrusor pressure ; Pressure flow studies ; Stress incontinence ; Voiding pattern
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The voiding pattern and detrusor contractility of patients with objective stress incontinence were compared with those of controls without abnormalities. The voiding pattern of a patient was qualified by estimating the detrusor pressure and the pressure generated by abdominal straining at maximum flow during voiding. Detrusor contractility was represented by the maximum detrusor pressure built up during a successful attempt to interrupt flow during voiding. It appeared that the contribution of abdominal straining during voiding was significantly higher in the stressincontinent group compared with the continent group. Also detrusor contractility was significantly lower in the stress-incontinent group. In light of the higher incidence of inefficient voiding patterns seen in the stressincontinent population and the low detrusor contractility in this group, preoperative urodynamic evaluation including cystometry with pressure flow studies is important for excluding or at least being aware of the possibility of postoperative bladder emptying problems, apart from the need to exclude underlying motor instability.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1433-3023
    Keywords: Diuresis cystometry ; Filling cystometry ; Incontinence ; Unstable bladder ; Urgency
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Cystometry under rapid diuretic conditions (diuresis cystometry) was performed in 62 women with clinical diagnosis of detrusor instability but in whom during filling cystometry essentially no abnormalities were detected. It appeared that the prevalence of detrusor instability was significantly more pronounced during diuresis cystometry as compared with filling cystometry. Motor urge incontinence could be diagnosed by filling cystometry in only 3 patients and by diuresis cystometry in 23 patients. It is concluded that diuresis cystometry is especially suited for the detection of detrusor instability in patients with a clinical diagnosis of detrusor instability but with essentially normal findings at filling cystometry. Diuresis cystometry takes only slightly more time than filling cystometry, and filling systems and catheters are not required.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Journal of Luminescence 24-25 (1981), S. 641-642 
    ISSN: 0022-2313
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-2036
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: : Long-term non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) intake may induce increased intestinal permeability, eventually resulting in enteropathy. Because increased permeability might be related to cell damage resulting from energy depletion, it was hypothesized that glutamine—the major energy source of the intestinal mucosal cell—might prevent permeability changes.〈section xml:id="abs1-2"〉〈title type="main"〉Methods: The 6-h urinary excretion of 51Cr-EDTA after an oral load of 51Cr-EDTA was used in this study as a measure for intestinal permeability. Healthy volunteers underwent a series of permeability tests: (i) basal test; (ii) test following NSAID (indomethacin); (iii) test following NSAID in combination with glutamine and/or misoprostol.〈section xml:id="abs1-3"〉〈title type="main"〉Results: The NSAID induced increased permeability in all volunteers. Pre-treatment with glutamine (3 × 7 g daily, 1 week before NSAID-dosing) did not prevent the NSAID-induced increase in permeability. Multiple doses of glutamine close in time to NSAID-dosing resulted in significantly lower permeability compared to the NSAID without glutamine. Co-administration of misoprostol with the multiple-dose scheme of glutamine resulted in a further reduction in the NSAID-induced increase in permeability.〈section xml:id="abs1-4"〉〈title type="main"〉Conclusions: Glutamine decreases the permeability changes caused by NSAID-dosing when it is administered close in time, and misoprostol has a synergistic effect.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-2036
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Smoking modulates inflammatory bowel disease, protecting from ulcerative colitis on the one hand and worsening the course of Crohn’s disease on the other. This influence might occur through changes in intestinal permeability, because permeability is increased in most patients with Crohn’s disease.〈section xml:id="abs1-2"〉〈title type="main"〉Aim:To study the influence of smoking on small intestinal permeability and its increase induced by indomethacin.〈section xml:id="abs1-3"〉〈title type="main"〉Methods:50 smokers and 50 nonsmokers underwent a 51Cr-EDTA basal permeability test and the same test after challenge with indomethacin 125 mg p.o.〈section xml:id="abs1-4"〉〈title type="main"〉Results:Small intestinal permeability was the same in smokers (median 1.22%; IQR 1.00–1.58) and nonsmokers (1.24%; 0.94–1.66). Basal small intestinal permeability was lower in females (1.09%; 0.87–1.33) than in males (1.48%; 1.18–1.88). Indomethacin challenge increased permeability by 110% (71–141) in smokers, vs. 156% (78–220) in the nonsmokers (P=0.04).〈section xml:id="abs1-5"〉〈title type="main"〉Conclusion:Smoking reduces the effect of NSAID on small intestinal permeability. It is therefore unlikely that the adverse effect of smoking on Crohn’s disease is related to its influence on intestinal permeability.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1439-0973
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung In einer offenen, randomisierten Vergleichsstudie wurde die Wirksamkeit von Pefloxacin (400 mg zweimal täglich) mit der von Cefotaxim (1 g dreimal täglich) bei der Behandlung komplizierter Harnwegsinfektionen verglichen. Mit der klinischen Diagnose komplizierte Harnwegsinfektion wurden 87 Patienten in die Studie aufgenommen; 49 davon standen für die Auswertung zur Verfügung. Die meisten Isolate gehörten zur Gruppe derEnterobacteriaceae. 48 Stunden nach Ende der Therapie waren in der Pefloxacingruppe bei 28 der 29 Patienten (96%) und in der Cefotaximgruppe bei 16 von 18 Patienten (89%) die Erreger eliminiert. Untersuchungen eine Woche nach Therapieende zeigten negative Urinkulturen bei 22 von 24 mit Pefloxacin (92%) und bei 9 von 11 mit Cefotaxim behandelten Patienten (82%). Nach sechs Wochen waren die Kulturen noch bei 13 von 19 der mit Pefloxacin (68%) und bei 8/10 der mit Cefotaxim (80%) behandelten Patienten negativ (der Unterschied ist mit p〉0,5 nicht signifikant). Die klinische Heilungsrate betrug nach Pefloxacin-Therapie 97% (30/31) und nach Cefotaxim-Therapie 89% (16/18). Die Rezidiv- und Reinfektionsraten waren nach 48 Stunden und eine Woche nach Therapieende vergleichbar. Die Nebenwirkungen der beiden Therapien waren leicht und reversible. Es kann folglich angenommen werden, daß Pefloxacin eine sichere und wirksame Alternative für die Behandlung komplizierter Harnwegsinfektionen darstellt.
    Notes: Summary In an open, randomized study, the effect of pefloxacin (400 mg b.i.d.) was compared with that of cefotaxime (1 g t.i.d.) in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections. In total 87 patients entered the study under the clinical diagnosis of complicated urinary tract infection, of whom 49 were eligible for evaluation. Most isolates (90%) belonged to the family ofEnterobacteriaceae. Isolates were eradicated from 96% (28/29) of patients treated with pefloxacin and 89% (16/18) of those receiving cefotaxime 48 h after the end of therapy. After one week a total of 92% (22/24) of patients treated with pefloxacin were culture negative, while in the group treated with cefotaxime a total of 82% (9/11) were culture negative. After four to six weeks, 68% (13/19) in the pefloxacin and 80% (8/10) in the cefotaxime study group showed a negative urine culture (difference non-significant; p〉0.5). Clinical cure at the end of treatment was 97% (30/31) in the pefloxacin group vs. 89% (16/18) in the cefotaxime group. Both groups showed similar relapse and reinfection rates at 48 h and one week after therapy. Adverse effects were mild and reversible for both drugs. It is concluded that pefloxacin is a safe and effective alternative for treatment of complicated urinary tract infection.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Regional environmental change 1 (2000), S. 60-69 
    ISSN: 1436-378X
    Keywords: Key words Industrial ecology ; Review ; Governance of material flows ; Dematerialisation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Industrial ecology is both a vision, a research field, and a source of inspiration for practical work. Its proponents aim to contribute to sustainable development by closing materials cycles and realising a fundamental paradigm shift in the thinking concerning industry–ecology relations. Dominant research lines in industrial ecology focus on industrial metabolism and life cycle tools. The underlying assumption is that the flow and transformation of materials can be managed through the correcting of market and regulatory failures which are causes of environmental degradation. This literature review suggests, on the one hand, that the manageability of the flow of materials is currently limited by market and regulatory failures which inhibit the implementation of the principles of industrial ecology and, on the other hand, that the flow and transformation of materials are only partly affected by prices, information and laws.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1435-4373
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Seventy patients with complicated urinary tract infections were treated with either lomefloxacin (400 mg once daily) or norfloxacin (400 mg twice daily) for 10 to 14 days. A total of 19 (86 %) of 22 patients treated with lomefloxacin and 20 (74 %) of 27 patients treated with norfloxacin were cured, as defined by a negative culture five to nine days after completion of therapy (p=0.09). After four to six weeks, the figures were 56 % for lomefloxacin and 48 % for norfloxacin. Adverse effects in the lomefloxacin group were observed on 20 occasions in 12 patients (one stopped treatment) compared to nine occasions in five patients treated with norfloxacin (difference not significant).
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