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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1130
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Ti-Al-O layers were deposited on Si-〈100〉 wafers at 500 °C by means of reactive magnetron sputtering ion plating (R-MSIP). An Al-target was sputtered in rf-mode and a Ti-target in dc-mode simultaneously by an oxygen/argon plasma. The influence of the Al- and Ti-sputter powers on composition, structure, and morphology of the Ti-Al-O layers and the binding states of the components were investigated. The analysis with EPMA, XPS, AES and TEM yielded the following results: Ti-Al-O coatings with different Ti, Al, and O contents in the range of TiO2 to Al2O3 were grown. TEM structure analysis revealed: the pure TiO2 film consisted of the tetragonal phases rutile and anatase; the two structures were found in the titanium-rich Ti-Al-O film, too, but with significant smaller lattice constants. The aluminium-rich Ti-Al-O film displayed the same cubic structure of γ-Al2O3 as determined for the pure Al2O3 film, but the lattice constant is significant lower. Evaluation of the TEM pattern of the film with a Ti/Al ratio of 0.8 indicates a hexagonal structure with lattice constants similar to those of κ′-Al2O3. All films are nanocrystalline and not textured.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1130
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Cu-O layers were deposited on Si-〈100〉 wafers at 90° C by means of reactive magnetron sputtering ion plating (R-MSIP). A Cu-target was sputtered in rf-mode by an oxygen/argon plasma, and the influence of the oxygen partial pressure on composition, structure, texture and morphology of the Cu-O layers was investigated. The analysis with EPMA, XRD, HEED and SEM yielded the following results: with an appropriate setting of the oxygen partial pressure, the oxygen content of the films could be controlled between 0 and 50 at-%. XRD bulk structure analysis shows changes in the crystal structure of the films with increasing oxygen content from the fcc structure of Cu, followed by the sc structure of Cu2O (cuprite), the tetragonal structure of Cu3 2+Cu2 1+O4 (paramelaconite) to the monoclinic structure of CuO (tenorite). As revealed by HEED, the structure of the near-surface region of the latter two is the same as that of the bulk, whereas in the case of the films with fcc bulk structure, due to oxidation by air, the surface has the sc structure of Cu2O, and in the case of the film with the sc structure, a monoclinic surface structure of CuO is observed. SEM analyses detected a disordered columnar growth of all Cu-O films.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1130
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Homogeneous films of metastable Cu3N were deposited on Si-〈100〉 wafers at 90° C by means of reactive magnetron sputtering ion plating. Under electron bombardment with a focused beam at high current (〉 700 nA, 15 keV) these films transform into metallic Cu and N2. The depletion of N was measured quantitatively by EPMA. Structures with a lateral size of 2 μm consisting of metallic copper were written into the Cu3N films. AFM surface scans revealed a vertical growth of the columnar grains of the Cu3N film due to the electron bombardment.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1238
    Keywords: Key words Measurement techniques ; Respiration ; Airway humidification methods
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objective: Thus far only few data are available on airway humidification during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV). Therefore, we studied the performance and efficiency of a heated humidifier (HH) and a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) in HFOV using an artificial lung model. Methods: Experiments were performed with a pediatric high-frequency oscillatory ventilator. The artificial lung contained a sponge saturated with water to simulate evaporation and was placed in an incubator heated to 37 °C to prevent condensation. The airway humidity was measured using a capacitive humidity sensor. The water loss of the lung model was determined gravimetrically. Results: The water loss of the lung model varied between 2.14 and 3.1 g/h during active humidification; it was 2.85 g/h with passive humidification and 7.56 g/h without humidification. The humidity at the tube connector varied between 34.2 and 42.5 mg/l, depending on the temperature of the HH and the ventilator setting during active humidification, and between 37 and 39.9 mg/l with passive humidification. Conclusion: In general, HH and HME are suitable devices for airway humidification in HFOV. The performance of the ventilator was not significantly influenced by the mode of humidification. However, the adequacy of humidification and safety of the HME remains to be demonstrated in clinical practice.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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