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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; MODEL ; MODELS ; THERAPY ; FOLLOW-UP ; COHORT ; cohort studies ; EXPOSURE ; RISK ; RISKS ; INDEX ; ASSOCIATION ; NO ; hormone ; HEALTH ; WOMEN ; HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY ; cancer risk ; FIBER ; MEASUREMENT ERROR ; DIET ; DIETARY ; FAT ; European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition ; nutrition ; AUSTRALIA ; ENDOMETRIAL CANCER ; RELATIVE RISK ; dietary fiber ; insulin ; IGF-I ; ASSOCIATIONS ; ENDOMETRIAL ; THERAPIES ; ENERGY-INTAKE ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; LEVEL ; INTERVAL ; USA ; prospective ; INSULIN SENSITIVITY ; VARIABLES ; CANCER-RISK ; C-PEPTIDE ; FOODS ; Nutrition Assessment ; postmenopausal ; DIANA RANDOMIZED-TRIAL ; dietary carbohydrates ; endometrial neoplasms ; glycemic index ; IOWA WOMENS HEALTH
    Abstract: The associations of dietary total carbohydrates, overall glycemic index, total dietary glycemic load, total sugars, total starch, and total fiber with endometrial cancer risk were analyzed among 288,428 women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort (1992-2004), including 710 incident cases diagnosed during a mean 6.4 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. There were no statistically significant associations with endometrial cancer risk for increasing quartile intakes of any of the exposure variables. However, in continuous models calibrated by using 24-hour recall values, the multivariable relative risks were 1.61 (95% confidence interval: 1.06, 2.45) per 100 g/day of total carbohydrates, 1.40 (95% confidence interval: 0.99, 1.99) per 50 units/day of total dietary glycemic load, and 1.36 (95% confidence interval: 1.05, 1.76) per 50 g/day of total sugars. These associations were stronger among women who had never used postmenopausal hormone therapy compared with ever users (total carbohydrates P-heterogeneity = 0.04). Data suggest no association of overall glycemic index, total starch, and total fiber with risk, and a possible modest positive association of total carbohydrates, total dietary glycemic load, and total sugars with risk, particularly among never users of hormone replacement therapy
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17670911
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  • 2
    Keywords: ENERGIES ; CANCER ; COMMON ; POPULATION ; ASSOCIATION ; HEALTH ; lifestyle ; DESIGN ; ENERGY ; AGE ; WOMEN ; MEN ; OBESITY ; COUNTRIES ; POPULATIONS ; DIET ; DIETARY ; UNITED-STATES ; INDIVIDUALS ; CONSUMPTION ; EPIC ; European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition ; meat ; nutrition ; VEGETABLES ; TRENDS ; EUROPE ; LOCATION ; FOOD ; physical activity ; YOUNG ; SINGLE ; ADULTS ; REGRESSION ; DETERMINANTS ; ENERGY-INTAKE ; RECALL ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; prospective ; YOUNG-ADULTS ; EXTENT ; ENGLAND ; FOODS ; 24-hour dietary recall ; LOGISTIC-REGRESSION ; correlates ; comparison ; lipid ; household ; eating locations ; eating out of home ; energy intake
    Abstract: Objective: To compare the average out-of-home (OH) consumption of foods and beverages, as well as energy intake, among populations from 10 European countries and to describe the characteristics of substantial OH caters, as defined for the purpose of the present study, in comparison to other individuals. Design: Cross-sectional study. Dietary data were collected through single 24-hour dietary recalls, in which the place of consumption was recorded. For the present study, substantial OH eaters were defined as those who consumed more than 25% of total daily energy intake at locations other than the household premises. Mean dietary intakes and the proportion of substantial OH eaters are presented by food group and country. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the odds of being a substantial OH eater in comparison to not being one, using mutually adjusted possible non-dietary determinants. Setting: Ten European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Subjects: The subjects were 34 270 individuals, 12 537 men and 21733 women, aged 35-74 years. Results: The fraction of energy intake during OH eating was generally higher in northern European countries than in the southern ones. Among the food and beverage groups, those selectively consumed outside the home were coffee/tea/waters and sweets and, to a lesser extent, cereals, meats, added lipids and vegetables. Substantial OH eating was positively associated with energy intake and inversely associated with age and physical activity. Substantial OH eating was less common among the less educated compared with the more educated, and more common during weekdays in central and north Europe and during the weekend in south Europe. Conclusions: Eating outside the home was associated with sedentary lifestyle and increased energy intake; it was more common among the young and concerned in particular coffee/tea/waters and sweets
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17582244
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; ALGORITHM ; ALGORITHMS ; COMMON ; NETWORK ; SYSTEM ; TOOL ; EXPOSURE ; COMPONENTS ; BIOMARKERS ; NO ; DESIGN ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; COUNTRIES ; COMPONENT ; DATABASE ; DIETARY ; AD ; FUTURE ; PROJECT ; CONSUMPTION ; EPIC ; European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition ; nutrition ; CALIBRATION ; MANAGEMENT ; GUIDELINES ; CHEMISTRY ; review ; WEIGHT ; 24-HOUR DIET RECALL ; analysis ; LOSSES ; prospective ; RECOMMENDATIONS ; STANDARDIZATION ; UNIT ; E ; SET ; WEIGHT CHANGE ; 24-h dietary recall ; ANALYSIS SYSTEMS ; DATA-BASE ; ENDB ; FOOD COMPOSITION DATABASES ; food composition tables ; nutrient databases ; NUTRITIONAL ANALYSIS
    Abstract: Objective: This paper describes the ad hoc methodological concepts and procedures developed to improve the comparability of Nutrient databases ( NDBs) across the 10 European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition ( EPIC). This was required because there is currently no European reference NDB available. Design: A large network involving national compilers, nutritionists and experts on food chemistry and computer science was set up for the 'EPIC Nutrient DataBase' ( ENDB) project. A total of 550-1500 foods derived from about 37 000 standardized EPIC 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRS) were matched as closely as possible to foods available in the 10 national NDBs. The resulting national data sets ( NDS) were then successively documented, standardized and evaluated according to common guidelines and using a DataBase Management System specifically designed for this project. The nutrient values of foods unavailable or not readily available in NDSs were approximated by recipe calculation, weighted averaging or adjustment for weight changes and vitamin/mineral losses, using common algorithms. Results: The final ENDB contains about 550-1500 foods depending on the country and 26 common components. Each component value was documented and standardized for unit, mode of expression, definition and chemical method of analysis, as far as possible. Furthermore, the overall completeness of NDSs was improved (〉= 99%), particularly for beta-carotene and vitamin E. Conclusion: The ENDB constitutes a first real attempt to improve the comparability of NDBs across European countries. This methodological work will provide a useful tool for nutritional research as well as end-user recommendations to improve NDBs in the future
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17375121
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