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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2006-04-21
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 2
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Hormone and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) receptors are the most important breast cancer biomarkers, and additional objective and quantitative test methods such as messenger RNA (mRNA)-based quantitative analysis are urgently needed. In this study, we investigated the clinical validity of RT-PCR-based evaluation of estrogen receptor (ESR1) and HER2 mRNA expression. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 1050 core biopsies from two retrospective (GeparTrio, GeparQuattro) and one prospective (PREDICT) neoadjuvant studies were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR for ESR1 and HER2. RESULTS: ESR1 mRNA was significantly predictive for reduced response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in univariate and multivariate analysis in all three cohorts. The complete pathologically documented response (pathological complete response, pCR) rate for ESR1+/HER2- tumors was 7.3%, 8.0% and 8.6%; for ESR1-/HER2- tumors it was 34.4%, 33.7% and 37.3% in GeparTrio, GeparQuattro and PREDICT, respectively (P 〈 0.001 in each cohort). In the Kaplan-Meier analysis in GeparTrio patients with ESR1+/HER2- tumors had the best prognosis, compared with ESR1-/HER2- and ESR1-/HER2+ tumors [disease-free survival (DFS): P 〈 0.0005, overall survival (OS): P 〈 0.0005]. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that mRNA levels of ESR1 and HER2 predict response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and are significantly associated with long-term outcome. As an additional option to standard immunohistochemistry and gene-array-based analysis, quantitative RT-PCR analysis might be useful for determination of the receptor status in breast cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23131391
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  • 3
    Abstract: Increased proliferation is a hallmark of malignant tumors. The proliferation marker Ki67 has been investigated as a breast cancer biomarker, but despite 32 years of research the best cutpoints and the best methods for determination are still under debate. This review is based on an overview on the efforts to standardize Ki67 and to optimize its performance that was presented at the St. Gallen oncology conference 2015. The clinical validity of Ki67 as a prognostic marker as well as a predictive marker (in the neoadjuvant setting) has been shown in several meta-analyses. Depending on cohort characteristics, molecular subtype and clinical setting, Ki67 is a prognostic marker, a predictive marker, or both. Many different cutpoints for Ki67 have been reported, but it is has not been possible to determine an evidence-based "optimal" cutpoint. This supports the view that Ki67 is continuous marker, reflecting the continuous variation of the proliferation rate in different tumors. We should probably stop looking for an "optimal" cutpoint for Ki67 because it simply does not exist. It is evident from the results of several ring trials that intermediate levels of Ki67 are particularly difficult for standardization. Due to the low analytical validity in the intermediate range as well as intratumoral heterogeneity, the clinical utility of intermediate Ki67 levels is limited. Clinical decisions should not be based on small differences in the intermediate range and additional molecular tests might be necessary for tumors with intermediate Ki67 levels. For the two groups of tumors with a very low or a very high Ki67 a clinical interpretation could be straightforward. Despite these limitations, the assessment of proliferation is a central parameter for tumor characterization and an important element of the pathological assessment.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26283598
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  • 4
    Abstract: Neoadjuvant therapy is very often an adequate alternative to adjuvant therapy. This review is summarizing the recent advances made in the area of neoadjuvant therapy in breast cancer. The focus will lie on recently published clinical trials but will not further highlight surgical, imaging and radiooncological issues related to neoadjuvant therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Within the last 1-1.5 years it has been discussed if neoadjuvant treatment can be used as faster way to get access to new therapies, based on new data in HER2+ breast cancer suggesting a higher pCR rate when a dual anti-HER2 therapy was used. Nevertheless this higher pCR rate does not necessarily translate always into a better survival. In TNBC carboplatin could be identified as an asset for patients, especially in patients with gBRCA mutations. However, mature long term data are still missing. The neoadjuvant approach is ideal to identify new biomarkers which predict response or resistance to the given treatment. Tumour infiltrating lymphocytes and PIK3CA mutations are amongst the most promising markers. SUMMARY: Neoadjuvant treatment should be considered for all patients with HER2-positive or triple negative breast cancer. Clinical trials in this setting are currently investigating new approaches.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26387601
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  • 5
    Abstract: Multiple independent studies have shown that tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) are prognostic in breast cancer with potential relevance for response to immune-checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Although many groups are currently evaluating TIL, there is no standardized system for diagnostic applications. This study reports the results of two ring studies investigating TIL conducted by the International Working Group on Immuno-oncology Biomarkers. The study aim was to determine the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for evaluation of TIL by different pathologists. A total of 120 slides were evaluated by a large group of pathologists with a web-based system in ring study 1 and a more advanced software-system in ring study 2 that included an integrated feedback with standardized reference images. The predefined aim for successful ring studies 1 and 2 was an ICC above 0.7 (lower limit of 95% confidence interval (CI)). In ring study 1 the prespecified endpoint was not reached (ICC: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.62-0.78). On the basis of an analysis of sources of variation, we developed a more advanced digital image evaluation system for ring study 2, which improved the ICC to 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85-0.92). The Fleiss' kappa value for 〈60 vs 〉/=60% TIL improved from 0.45 (ring study 1) to 0.63 in RS2 and the mean concordance improved from 88 to 92%. This large international standardization project shows that reproducible evaluation of TIL is feasible in breast cancer. This opens the way for standardized reporting of tumor immunological parameters in clinical studies and diagnostic practice. The software-guided image evaluation approach used in ring study 2 may be of value as a tool for evaluation of TIL in clinical trials and diagnostic practice. The experience gained from this approach might be applicable to the standardization of other diagnostic parameters in histopathology.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27363491
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  • 6
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: The PI3K/AKT pathway and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) aberrations are common in breast cancer. We investigated the correlation between phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA), PTEN, p4EBP1 (phosphorylated E4 binding protein 1), and pathologic complete response (pCR) in patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We retrospectively evaluated PIK3CA, PTEN, and p4EBP1 protein expression in centrally HER2-positive patients (n = 181) who received epirubicin cyclophosphamide/trastuzumab followed by docetaxel/trastuzumab alone or concomitant/followed by capecitabine within the GeparQuattro study. PTEN was assessed using the automated quantitative immunofluorescence analysis and was analyzed as a dichotomic variable. p4EBP1 was assessed by immunohistochemistry and used as a continuous and dichotomic variable. RESULTS: p4EBP1 was available from 137, PTEN from 108, and PIK3CA genotype from 83 patients. Overall, the pCR rate in PTEN-low tumors was 27.6%, and in PTEN-high tumors, it was 57.1% (P = 0.010). pCR rates were not statistically different between PIK3CA wild-type and mutant (35% vs. 22%) or p4EBP1 IRS 〈/= 4 and IRS 〉 4 (39% vs. 33%). pCR rate was 57.1% (8/14) in PTEN-high/PIK3CA wild-type and decreased to 15.4% in PTEN-low/PIK3CA-mutant tumors (P = 0.023). In multivariable analysis adjusted for baseline parameters, PTEN independently predicted pCR in the following cohorts: overall [OR, 7.54; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.03-28.06; P = 0.003], PIK3CA wild-type (OR, 23.81; 95% CI, 1.75-324.05; P = 0.017), p4EBP1 IRS 〉 4 (OR, 11.53; 95% CI, 1.84-72.24; P = 0.009), and hormone receptor-positive (OR, 40.91; 95% CI, 2.93-570.44; P = 0.006). p4EBP1 was independently predictive for pCR in PIK3CA wild-type tumors (OR, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.03-0.78; P = 0.025). CONCLUSIONS: The study showed the potential role of PIK3CA genotype, PTEN, and p4EBP in predicting pCR after anthracycline-taxane-based chemotherapy and anti-HER2 treatment. Clin Cancer Res; 22(11); 2675-83. (c)2016 AACR.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26758558
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  • 7
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: The predictive value of PIK3CA mutations in HER2 positive (HER2+) breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant anti-HER2 and chemotherapy has been reported, but the power for subgroup analyses was lacking. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We combined individual patient data from five clinical trials evaluating PIK3CA mutations and associations with pathological complete response (pCR), disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Patients received either trastuzumab (T), lapatinib (L) or the combination T/L in addition to a taxane-based chemotherapy. PIK3CA was genotyped in tumour biopsies taken before therapy. RESULTS: A total of 967 patients were included in this analysis; the median follow-up is 47 months. Overall, the pCR rate was significantly lower in the PIK3CA mutant compared with the wild-type group (16.2% versus 29.6%; P 〈 0.001). Within the hormone-receptor positive (HR+) subgroup, the PIK3CA mutant group had a pCR rate of only 7.6% compared with 24.2% in the wild-type group (P 〈 0.001). In contrast, in the HER2+/HR- group, there was no difference in pCR (27.2% versus 36.4%; P = 0.125) according to PIK3CA mutation status (interaction test P = 0.036). According to treatment arm, the pCR rate for mutant versus wild-type was 20.3% versus 27.1% for T (P = 0.343), 11.3% versus 16.9% for L (P = 0.369) and 16.7% versus 39.1% for T/L (P 〈 0.001). In the HR+ T/L group, the pCR rate was 5.5% versus 33.9% (interaction between HR and PIK3CA genotype P = 0.008). DFS and OS were not significantly different by mutation status, though the incidence rate of events was low. However, HR+/PIK3CA mutant patients seemed to have significantly worse DFS {hazard ratio (HR) 1.56 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-2.45], P = 0.050; Pinteraction = 0.021}. T/L tended to improve DFS compared with T in the wild-type cohort, especially in the HR- group [HR 0.72, 95% CI (0.41-1.25), P = 0.242]. CONCLUSION: Overall PIK3CA mutant/HER2+ tumours had significantly lower pCR rates compared with wild-type tumours, however mainly confined to the HR+/PIK3CA mutant population. No definite conclusions can be drawn regarding survival.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27177864
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  • 8
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: TP53 mutations are frequent in breast cancer, however their clinical relevance in terms of response to chemotherapy is controversial. METHODS: 450 pre-therapeutic, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded core biopsies from the phase II neoadjuvant GeparSixto trial that included HER2-positive and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) were subjected to Sanger sequencing of exons 5-8 of the TP53 gene. TP53 status was correlated to response to neoadjuvant anthracycline/taxane-based chemotherapy with or without carboplatin and trastuzumab/lapatinib in HER2-positive and bevacizumab in TNBC. p53 protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in the TNBC subgroup. RESULTS: Of 450 breast cancer samples 297 (66.0%) were TP53 mutant. Mutations were significantly more frequent in TNBC (74.8%) compared to HER2-positive cancers (55.4%, P 〈 0.0001). Neither mutations nor different mutation types and effects were associated with pCR neither in the whole study group nor in molecular subtypes (P 〉 0.05 each). Missense mutations tended to be associated with a better survival compared to all other types of mutations in TNBC (P = 0.093) and in HER2-positive cancers (P = 0.071). In TNBC, missense mutations were also linked to higher numbers of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs, P = 0.028). p53 protein overexpression was also linked with imporved survival (P = 0.019). CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms high TP53 mutation rates in TNBC and HER2-positive breast cancer. Mutations did not predict the response to an intense neoadjuvant chemotherapy in these two molecular breast cancer subtypes.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27611952
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  • 9
    Keywords: CELLS ; LIGAND ; PREOPERATIVE CHEMOTHERAPY ; TUMORIGENESIS ; bone metastasis ; NEOADJUVANT CHEMOTHERAPY ; OSTEOCLAST ; III RANDOMIZED GEPARTRIO ; RANKL/RANK/OPG ; DENOSUMAB
    Abstract: RANK ligand (RANKL) is crucial for the development of mouse mammary glands during pregnancy. RANKL functions as a major paracrine effector of the mitogenic action of progesterone in mammary epithelium via its receptor RANK and has a role in expansion and regenerative potential of mammary stem cells. Pharmacologic inhibition of RANKL attenuates the development of mammary carcinoma and inhibits metastatic progression in multiple mouse models. Primary breast carcinoma samples from the neoadjuvant GeparTrio study were analyzed to correlate the expression of human RANK and RANKL with pathological complete response (pCR), disease-free (DFS), and overall (OS) survival. Pre-treatment FFPE core biopsies (n = 601) were analyzed for percentage and intensity of immunohistochemical RANK and RANKL expression. Antibodies against human RANK (N-1H8; Amgen) and human RANKL (M366; Amgen) were used. RANK protein was expressed in 160 (27 %) patients. Increased RANK expression was observed in 14.5 % of patients and correlated with high tumor grade (p 〈 0.023) and negative hormone receptor (HR) status (p 〈 0.001). Patients with high RANK expression showed a higher pCR rate (23.0 % vs. 12.6 %, p = 0.010), shorter DFS (p = 0.038), and OS (p = 0.011). However, prognostic and predictive information was not an independent parameter. Only 6 % of samples expressed RANKL, which was not correlated with any clinical features. Higher RANK expression in the primary tumor is associated with a higher sensitivity to chemotherapy, but also a higher risk of relapse and death. Our study provides a basis for further exploration of the antitumor activity of clinical antibodies against RANKL.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24737168
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  • 10
    Abstract: PURPOSE: Modulation of immunologic interactions in cancer tissue is a promising therapeutic strategy. To investigate the immunogenicity of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) -positive and triple-negative (TN) breast cancers (BCs), we evaluated tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and immunologically relevant genes in the neoadjuvant GeparSixto trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: GeparSixto investigated the effect of adding carboplatin (Cb) to an anthracycline-plus-taxane combination (PM) on pathologic complete response (pCR). A total of 580 tumors were evaluated before random assignment for stromal TILs and lymphocyte-predominant BC (LPBC). mRNA expression of immune-activating (CXCL9, CCL5, CD8A, CD80, CXCL13, IGKC, CD21) as well as immunosuppressive factors (IDO1, PD-1, PD-L1, CTLA4, FOXP3) was measured in 481 tumors. RESULTS: Increased levels of stromal TILs predicted pCR in univariable (P 〈 .001) and multivariable analyses (P 〈 .001). pCR rate was 59.9% in LPBC and 33.8% for non-LPBC (P 〈 .001). pCR rates 〉/= 75% were observed in patients with LPBC tumors treated with PMCb, with a significant test for interaction with therapy in the complete (P = .002) and HER2-positive (P = .006), but not the TNBC, cohorts. Hierarchic clustering of mRNA markers revealed three immune subtypes with different pCR rates (P 〈 .001). All 12 immune mRNA markers were predictive for increased pCR. The highest odds ratios (ORs) were observed for PD-L1 (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.34 to 1.86; P 〈 .001) and CCL5 (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.23 to 1.62; P 〈 .001). CONCLUSION: Immunologic factors were highly significant predictors of therapy response in the GeparSixto trial, particularly in patients treated with Cb. After further standardization, they could be included in histopathologic assessment of BC.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25534375
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