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  • 1
    ISSN: 1440-1797
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: SUMMARY:  In the last 10 years, many studies have focused on the non-classical action of aldosterone. One of the most important new aspects of aldosterone is its pathogenic role as proinflammatory and profibrotic molecules. It has been reported that aldosterone induces myocardial fibrosis and vascular inflammation through up-regulation of various proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines. We investigated the effect of aldosterone and spironolactone, which is a non-selective mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, on monocyte chemoattractant peptide (MCP-1) and collagen synthesis in cultured mesangial and tubular epithelial cells. In addition, to evaluate the effect of spironolactone on diabetic nephropathy, we used Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats which are known type 2 diabetic animal models. Spironolactone treatment did not induce any significant change in blood glucose levels and blood pressure. However, spironolactone therapy significantly inhibited urinary albumin and MCP-1 excretion. Spironolactone treatment also suppressed renal mRNA expression for MCP-1, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) as well as intrarenal protein synthesis for ED-1 and MIF. Morphologically, spironolactone treatment significantly prevented glomerulosclerosis, collagen deposition and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression in diabetic rats. In cultured cell experiments, aldosterone directly increased the MCP-1, collagen secretion and spironolactone treatment abolished aldosterone-induced MCP-1 and collagen synthesis. Surprisingly, aldosterone treatment did not induce any significant change in TGFβ1 gene transcription. Finally, we found that NF-kB activity was increased after stimulation with aldosterone and spironolactone therapy inhibited their activation. In addition, prior treatment with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), which is a NF-KB inhibitor, inhibited aldosterone-induced MCP-1 protein secretion. These results suggest that aldosterone blockade could play a role in preventing the progression of diabetic nephropathy via anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic mechanisms.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: aspartic acid anhydride ; poly(ethylene glycol) ; poly(L-aspartic acid-co-PEG) ; biodegradable polymers ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The melt polycondensation reaction of the prepolymer prepared from N-(benzyloxycarbonyl)-L-aspartic acid anhydride (N-CBz-L-aspartic acid anhydride) and low molecular weight poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) using titanium isopropoxide (TIP) as a catalyst produced the new biodegradable poly(L-aspartic acid-co-PEG). This new copolymer had pendant amine functional groups along the polymer backbone chain. The optimal reaction conditions for the preparation of the prepolymer were obtained by using a 0.12 mol % of p-toluenesulfonic acid with PEG 200 for 48 h. The weight-average molecular weight of the prepolymer increased from 1,290 to 31,700 upon melt polycondensation for 6 h at 130°C under vacuum using 0.5 wt % TIP as a catalyst. The synthesized monomer, prepolymer, and copolymer were characterized by FTIR, 1H- and 13C-NMR, and UV spectrophotometers. Thermal properties of the prepolymer and the protected copolymer were measured by DSC. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of the prepolymer shifted to a significantly higher temperature with increasing molecular weight via melt polycondensation reaction, and no melting temperature was observed. The in vitro hydrolytic degradation of these poly(L-aspartic acid-co-PEG) was measured in terms of molecular weight loss at different times and pHs at 37°C. This pH-dependent molecular weight loss was due to a simple hydrolysis of the backbone ester linkages and was characterized by more rapid rates of hydrolysis at an alkaline pH. These new biodegradable poly(L-aspartic acid-co-PEG)s may have potential applications in the biomedical field. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 2949-2959, 1998
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Chrysanthemum morifolium ; Allelopathy ; aqueous extract ; used garden soil ; phenolic acids ; gas chromatography ; continuous cropping ; germination inhibition rate ; autointoxication
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Aqueous extracts obtained from young green tops ofChrysanthemum morifolium inhibited the germination of six flowering plants, including chrysanthemum itself, provided for experiments. The same phenomenon was also clearly observed when powder made from young green tops and old leaves of chrysanthemum was used. Moreover, the growth of seedlings planted again in garden soil which was once used for the culture of chrysanthemum was greatly interrupted. Chrysanthemum cultured in used garden soil showed far less dry weight than that cultured in fresh garden soil. The weight of chrysanthemum cultured using its root exudates was also less than that cultured with water leachate of fresh garden soil, and therefore these results may be considered to indicate allelopathic effects. In order to find the allelochemicals related to this phenomenon, benzoic acid and phenolic acids such as salicylic,p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, gentisic, protocatechuic, syringic, gallic, ferulic, and caffeic acids were identified by gas chromatography.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1022-1336
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: A novel biodegradable polyester having pendant amine functional groups was snythesized from N-(benzyloxycarbonyl)-L-aspartic anhydride (2) and 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol (3) by polycondensation reaction using p-toluenesulfonic acid as a catalyst. The synthesized polymer 4 shows the characteristic ester carbonyl absorption peak at 1732 cm-1 in the IR spectrum, and the NMR spectra were consistent with the IR data. Also, the elemental analysis showed that the experimental and calculated values were very close to each other. The weight-average molecular weight of the polymers ranged from 1140 to 5050 and increased with increasing reaction time. This new polymer would have the potential of a drug delivery biomaterial.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Remarkable reduction of contact resistance in the metal-p+ silicon Schottky barriers is obtained using the BF2/B mixed implant instead of the BF2 implant. Upon the annealing, higher remaining contents of both boron and fluorine in a shallow p+ surface layer are observed in the mixed implanted silicon. Variation of the dopants loss observed with different F doses is explained by introducing the following two types of surface reaction, i.e., (1) recombination of F–Si to make gaseous fluorosilyl/oxyfluorosilyl products and (2) recombination of F–B to form gaseous boron fluorides. Increasing the amount of the F–B reaction accelerates the recombination reaction of F–Si due to the reduced surface p+ doping level, and then results in the anomalous enhancement of the F removal. For the mixed implant, shortening of the average interdopant separation due to higher B contents within the contact depletion width reduces the potential fluctuations induced by the dopant discreteness, and thus leads to the improved uniformity of contact resistance. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Interfacial reactions strongly influence the performance of lithium-ion batteries, with the main interfacial reaction between graphite and propylene carbonate- (PC-) based electrolytes corresponding to solvent cointercalation. Herein, the redox reactions of solvated lithium ions occurring at the graphite interface in 1 M·LiClO4/PC were probed by chronopotentiometry, in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM), and in situ Raman spectroscopy. The obtained results revealed that high coulombic efficiency (97.5%) can be achieved at high current density, additionally showing the strong influence of charge capacity on the above redox reactions. Moreover, AFM imaging indicated the occurrence of solvent cointercalation during the first reduction, as reflected by the presence of hills and blisters on the basal plane of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite subjected to the above process.
    Print ISSN: 2090-8865
    Electronic ISSN: 2090-8873
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Published by Hindawi
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-06-07
    Description: Author Correction: ID3 regulates the MDC1-mediated DNA damage response in order to maintain genome stability Author Correction: ID3 regulates the MDC1-mediated DNA damage response in order to maintain genome stability, Published online: 06 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41467-018-04599-6 Author Correction: ID3 regulates the MDC1-mediated DNA damage response in order to maintain genome stability
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-1723
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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