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  • Articles  (7)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-04-10
    Description: B lymphocytes migrate among varied microenvironmental niches during diversification, selection, and conversion to memory or Ab-secreting plasma cells. Aspects of the nutrient milieu differ within these lymphoid microenvironments and can influence signaling molecules such as the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR). However, much remains to be elucidated as to the B cell–intrinsic functions of nutrient-sensing signal transducers that modulate B cell differentiation or Ab affinity. We now show that the amino acid–sensing mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) is vital for induction of Bcl6—a key transcriptional regulator of the germinal center (GC) fate—in activated B lymphocytes. Accordingly, disruption of mTORC1 after B cell development and activation led to reduced populations of Ag-specific memory B cells as well as plasma cells and GC B cells. In addition, induction of the germ line transcript that guides activation-induced deaminase in selection of the IgG1 H chain region during class switching required mTORC1. Expression of the somatic mutator activation-induced deaminase was reduced by a lack of mTORC1 in B cells, whereas point mutation frequencies in Ag-specific GC-phenotype B cells were only halved. These effects culminated in a B cell–intrinsic defect that impacted an antiviral Ab response and drastically impaired generation of high-affinity IgG1. Collectively, these data establish that mTORC1 governs critical B cell–intrinsic mechanisms essential for establishment of GC differentiation and effective Ab production.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1767
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-6606
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Light-induced structural dynamics plays a vital role in the physical properties, device performance, and stability of hybrid perovskite–based optoelectronic devices. We report that continuous light illumination leads to a uniform lattice expansion in hybrid perovskite thin films, which is critical for obtaining high-efficiency photovoltaic devices. Correlated, in situ structural and device characterizations reveal that light-induced lattice expansion benefits the performances of a mixed-cation pure-halide planar device, boosting the power conversion efficiency from 18.5 to 20.5%. The lattice expansion leads to the relaxation of local lattice strain, which lowers the energetic barriers at the perovskite-contact interfaces, thus improving the open circuit voltage and fill factor. The light-induced lattice expansion did not compromise the stability of these high-efficiency photovoltaic devices under continuous operation at full-spectrum 1-sun (100 milliwatts per square centimeter) illumination for more than 1500 hours.
    Keywords: Physics, Applied, Materials Science
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-10-23
    Description: Production of TGF-β by T cells is key to various aspects of immune homeostasis, with defects in this process causing or aggravating immune-mediated disorders. The molecular mechanisms that lead to TGF-β generation by T cells remain largely unknown. To address this issue, we take advantage of the fact that intestinal helminths stimulate Th2 cells besides triggering TGF-β generation by T lymphocytes and regulate immune-mediated disorders. We show that the Th2 cell–inducing transcription factor STAT6 is necessary and sufficient for the expression of TGF-β propeptide in T cells. STAT6 is also necessary for several helminth-triggered events in mice, such as TGF-β–dependent suppression of alloreactive inflammation in graft-versus-host disease. Besides STAT6, helminth-induced secretion of active TGF-β requires cleavage of propeptide by the endopeptidase furin. Thus, for the immune regulatory pathway necessary for TGF-β production by T cells, our results support a two-step model, composed of STAT6 and furin.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1767
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-6606
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-05-07
    Description: In the adult central nervous system, the vasculature of the neurogenic niche regulates neural stem cell behavior by providing circulating and secreted factors. Age-related decline of neurogenesis and cognitive function is associated with reduced blood flow and decreased numbers of neural stem cells. Therefore, restoring the functionality of the niche should counteract some of the negative effects of aging. We show that factors found in young blood induce vascular remodeling, culminating in increased neurogenesis and improved olfactory discrimination in aging mice. Further, we show that GDF11 alone can improve the cerebral vasculature and enhance neurogenesis. The identification of factors that slow the age-dependent deterioration of the neurogenic niche in mice may constitute the basis for new methods of treating age-related neurodegenerative and neurovascular diseases.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4123747/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4123747/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Katsimpardi, Lida -- Litterman, Nadia K -- Schein, Pamela A -- Miller, Christine M -- Loffredo, Francesco S -- Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R -- Chen, John W -- Lee, Richard T -- Wagers, Amy J -- Rubin, Lee L -- 1DP2 OD004345/OD/NIH HHS/ -- 1R01 AG033053/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- 1R01 AG040019/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- 5U01 HL100402/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- DP2 OD004345/OD/NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG032977/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG033053/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG040019/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS070835/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS072167/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01NS070835/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01NS072167/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL100402/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 May 9;344(6184):630-4. doi: 10.1126/science.1251141. Epub 2014 May 5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24797482" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging/*drug effects ; Animals ; Bone Morphogenetic Proteins/*administration & dosage/blood/physiology ; Brain/blood supply/*drug effects ; Cerebrovascular Circulation/*drug effects ; Cognition/drug effects ; Endothelium, Vascular/cytology/drug effects ; Growth Differentiation Factors/*administration & dosage/blood/physiology ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Neural Stem Cells/cytology/*drug effects ; Neurogenesis/*drug effects ; Olfactory Bulb/cytology/drug effects ; Parabiosis ; Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage ; *Rejuvenation
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-06-26
    Description: The relation of local order to material properties in relaxor ferroelectrics The relation of local order to material properties in relaxor ferroelectrics, Published online: 25 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41563-018-0112-7 How local order affects the excellent piezoelectric properties of Pb-based relaxor ferroelectrics is unclear, but neutron diffuse scattering shows that non-relaxor distortions are implicated, indicating the important role of oxygen atoms.
    Print ISSN: 1476-1122
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4660
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-12-15
    Description: Purpose: Circular RNAs (circRNAs), a novel class of noncoding RNAs, have recently drawn lots of attention in the pathogenesis of human cancers. However, the role of circRNAs in cancer cells epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to identify novel circRNAs that regulate urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) cells’ EMT and explored their regulatory mechanisms and clinical significance in UCBs. Experimental Design: We first screened circRNA expression profiles using a circRNA microarray in paired UCB and normal tissues, and then studied the clinical significance of an upregulated circRNA, circPRMT5, in a large cohort of patients with UCB. We further investigated the functions and underlying mechanisms of circPRMT5 in UCB cells’ EMT. Moreover, we evaluated the regulation effect of circPRMT5 on miR-30c, and its target genes, SNAIL1 and E-cadherin , in two independent cohorts from our institute and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Results: We demonstrated that upregulated expression of circPRMT5 was positively associated with advanced clinical stage and worse survival in patients with UCB. We further revealed that circPRMT5 promoted UCB cell's EMT via sponging miR-30c. Clinical analysis from two independent UCB cohorts showed that the circPRMT5/miR-30c/SNAIL1/E-cadherin pathway was essential in supporting UCB progression. Importantly, we identified that circPRMT5 was upregulated in serum and urine exosomes from patients with UCB, and significantly correlated with tumor metastasis. Conclusions: CircPRMT5 exerts critical roles in promoting UCB cells’ EMT and/or aggressiveness and is a prognostic biomarker of the disease, suggesting that circPRMT5 may serve as an exploitable therapeutic target for patients with UCB.
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-09-07
    Description: Adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) is impaired before the onset of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology. We found that exercise provided cognitive benefit to 5 x FAD mice, a mouse model of AD, by inducing AHN and elevating levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Neither stimulation of AHN alone, nor exercise, in the absence of increased AHN, ameliorated cognition. We successfully mimicked the beneficial effects of exercise on AD mice by genetically and pharmacologically inducing AHN in combination with elevating BDNF levels. Suppressing AHN later led to worsened cognitive performance and loss of preexisting dentate neurons. Thus, pharmacological mimetics of exercise, enhancing AHN and elevating BDNF levels, may improve cognition in AD. Furthermore, applied at early stages of AD, these mimetics may protect against subsequent neuronal cell death.
    Keywords: Medicine, Diseases, Neuroscience, Online Only
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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