Type I IFN production of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) triggered by TLR-signaling is an essential part of antiviral responses and autoimmune reactions. Although it was well-documented that members of the cytokine signaling (SOCS) family regulate TLR-signaling, the mechanism of how SOCS proteins regulate TLR7-mediated type I IFN production has not been elucidated yet. In this article, we show that TLR7 activation in human pDCs induced the expression of SOCS1 and SOCS3. SOCS1 and SOCS3 strongly suppressed TLR7-mediated type I IFN production. Furthermore, we demonstrated that SOCS1- and SOCS3-bound IFN regulatory factor 7, a pivotal transcription factor of the TLR7 pathway, through the SH2 domain to promote its proteasomal degradation by lysine 48-linked polyubiquitination. Together, our results demonstrate that SOCS1/3-mediated degradation of IFN regulatory factor 7 directly regulates TLR7 signaling and type I IFN production in pDCs. This mechanism might be targeted by therapeutic approaches to either enhance type I IFN production in antiviral treatment or decrease type I IFN production in the treatment of autoimmune diseases.