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  • Articles  (66)
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  • Nature. 470(7333): 269-73. doi: 10.1038/nature09677.  (1)
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  • Nature. 477(7364): 289-94. doi: 10.1038/nature10413.  (1)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-09-10
    Description: Somaclonal variation arises in plants and animals when differentiated somatic cells are induced into a pluripotent state, but the resulting clones differ from each other and from their parents. In agriculture, somaclonal variation has hindered the micropropagation of elite hybrids and genetically modified crops, but the mechanism responsible remains unknown. The oil palm fruit 'mantled' abnormality is a somaclonal variant arising from tissue culture that drastically reduces yield, and has largely halted efforts to clone elite hybrids for oil production. Widely regarded as an epigenetic phenomenon, 'mantling' has defied explanation, but here we identify the MANTLED locus using epigenome-wide association studies of the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis. DNA hypomethylation of a LINE retrotransposon related to rice Karma, in the intron of the homeotic gene DEFICIENS, is common to all mantled clones and is associated with alternative splicing and premature termination. Dense methylation near the Karma splice site (termed the Good Karma epiallele) predicts normal fruit set, whereas hypomethylation (the Bad Karma epiallele) predicts homeotic transformation, parthenocarpy and marked loss of yield. Loss of Karma methylation and of small RNA in tissue culture contributes to the origin of mantled, while restoration in spontaneous revertants accounts for non-Mendelian inheritance. The ability to predict and cull mantling at the plantlet stage will facilitate the introduction of higher performing clones and optimize environmentally sensitive land resources.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ong-Abdullah, Meilina -- Ordway, Jared M -- Jiang, Nan -- Ooi, Siew-Eng -- Kok, Sau-Yee -- Sarpan, Norashikin -- Azimi, Nuraziyan -- Hashim, Ahmad Tarmizi -- Ishak, Zamzuri -- Rosli, Samsul Kamal -- Malike, Fadila Ahmad -- Bakar, Nor Azwani Abu -- Marjuni, Marhalil -- Abdullah, Norziha -- Yaakub, Zulkifli -- Amiruddin, Mohd Din -- Nookiah, Rajanaidu -- Singh, Rajinder -- Low, Eng-Ti Leslie -- Chan, Kuang-Lim -- Azizi, Norazah -- Smith, Steven W -- Bacher, Blaire -- Budiman, Muhammad A -- Van Brunt, Andrew -- Wischmeyer, Corey -- Beil, Melissa -- Hogan, Michael -- Lakey, Nathan -- Lim, Chin-Ching -- Arulandoo, Xaviar -- Wong, Choo-Kien -- Choo, Chin-Nee -- Wong, Wei-Chee -- Kwan, Yen-Yen -- Alwee, Sharifah Shahrul Rabiah Syed -- Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi -- Martienssen, Robert A -- R01 GM067014/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Sep 24;525(7570):533-7. doi: 10.1038/nature15365. Epub 2015 Sep 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Malaysian Palm Oil Board, 6, Persiaran Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia. ; Orion Genomics, 4041 Forest Park Avenue, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA. ; United Plantations Berhad, Jendarata Estate, 36009 Teluk Intan, Perak, Malaysia. ; Applied Agricultural Resources Sdn Bhd, No. 11, Jalan Teknologi 3/6, Taman Sains Selangor 1, 47810 Kota Damansara, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia. ; FELDA Global Ventures R&D Sdn Bhd, c/o FELDA Biotechnology Centre, PT 23417, Lengkuk Teknologi, 71760 Bandar Enstek, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute-Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York 11724, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26352475" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alleles ; Alternative Splicing/genetics ; Arecaceae/*genetics/metabolism ; *DNA Methylation ; Epigenesis, Genetic/*genetics ; *Epigenomics ; Fruit/genetics ; Genes, Homeobox/genetics ; Genetic Association Studies ; Genome, Plant/*genetics ; Introns/genetics ; Molecular Sequence Data ; *Phenotype ; Plant Oils/analysis/metabolism ; RNA Splice Sites/genetics ; RNA, Small Interfering/genetics ; Retroelements/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-11-12
    Description: In multicellular organisms, transcription regulation is one of the central mechanisms modelling lineage differentiation and cell-fate determination. Transcription requires dynamic chromatin configurations between promoters and their corresponding distal regulatory elements. It is believed that their communication occurs within large discrete foci of aggregated RNA polymerases termed transcription factories in three-dimensional nuclear space. However, the dynamic nature of chromatin connectivity has not been characterized at the genome-wide level. Here, through a chromatin interaction analysis with paired-end tagging approach using an antibody that primarily recognizes the pre-initiation complexes of RNA polymerase II, we explore the transcriptional interactomes of three mouse cells of progressive lineage commitment, including pluripotent embryonic stem cells, neural stem cells and neurosphere stem/progenitor cells. Our global chromatin connectivity maps reveal approximately 40,000 long-range interactions, suggest precise enhancer-promoter associations and delineate cell-type-specific chromatin structures. Analysis of the complex regulatory repertoire shows that there are extensive colocalizations among promoters and distal-acting enhancers. Most of the enhancers associate with promoters located beyond their nearest active genes, indicating that the linear juxtaposition is not the only guiding principle driving enhancer target selection. Although promoter-enhancer interactions exhibit high cell-type specificity, promoters involved in interactions are found to be generally common and mostly active among different cells. Chromatin connectivity networks reveal that the pivotal genes of reprogramming functions are transcribed within physical proximity to each other in embryonic stem cells, linking chromatin architecture to coordinated gene expression. Our study sets the stage for the full-scale dissection of spatial and temporal genome structures and their roles in orchestrating development.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3954713/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3954713/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhang, Yubo -- Wong, Chee-Hong -- Birnbaum, Ramon Y -- Li, Guoliang -- Favaro, Rebecca -- Ngan, Chew Yee -- Lim, Joanne -- Tai, Eunice -- Poh, Huay Mei -- Wong, Eleanor -- Mulawadi, Fabianus Hendriyan -- Sung, Wing-Kin -- Nicolis, Silvia -- Ahituv, Nadav -- Ruan, Yijun -- Wei, Chia-Lin -- 1U54HG004557-01/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- GGP12152/Telethon/Italy -- GM61390/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK090382/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 HD059862/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004456-01/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS079231/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01DK090382/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01HD059862/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01HG003521-01/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01HG005058/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01HG006768/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01NS079231/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- U01 GM061390/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U19 GM061390/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Dec 12;504(7479):306-10. doi: 10.1038/nature12716. Epub 2013 Nov 10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Sequencing Technology Group, Joint Genome Institute, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Walnut Creek, California 94598, USA [2] [3] Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 8410501, Israel (R.Y.B.); National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Systems Biology Center, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA (Y.Z.). ; 1] Sequencing Technology Group, Joint Genome Institute, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Walnut Creek, California 94598, USA [2]. ; 1] Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, Institute for Human Genetics, UCSF, San Francisco, California 94158, USA [2] [3] Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 8410501, Israel (R.Y.B.); National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Systems Biology Center, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA (Y.Z.). ; 1] The Jackson Laboratory for Genomic Medicine, and Department of Genetic and Development Biology, University of Connecticut, 400 Farmington, Connecticut 06030, USA [2] Genome Institute of Singapore, 60 Biopolis Street, 138672 Singapore. ; Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Milano-Bicocca, 20126 Milano, Italy. ; Sequencing Technology Group, Joint Genome Institute, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Walnut Creek, California 94598, USA. ; Genome Institute of Singapore, 60 Biopolis Street, 138672 Singapore. ; Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, Institute for Human Genetics, UCSF, San Francisco, California 94158, USA. ; The Jackson Laboratory for Genomic Medicine, and Department of Genetic and Development Biology, University of Connecticut, 400 Farmington, Connecticut 06030, USA. ; 1] Sequencing Technology Group, Joint Genome Institute, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Walnut Creek, California 94598, USA [2] Genome Institute of Singapore, 60 Biopolis Street, 138672 Singapore.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24213634" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Line ; Cell Lineage ; Chromatin/*genetics/*metabolism ; Embryonic Stem Cells/metabolism ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic/*genetics ; Gene Expression Regulation/*genetics ; In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence ; Mice ; Neural Stem Cells/metabolism ; Promoter Regions, Genetic/*genetics ; RNA Polymerase II/metabolism ; Transcription, Genetic/genetics ; Zebrafish/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-09-13
    Description: Blood pressure is a heritable trait influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (〉/=140 mm Hg systolic blood pressure or 〉/=90 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure). Even small increments in blood pressure are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. This genome-wide association study of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, which used a multi-stage design in 200,000 individuals of European descent, identified sixteen novel loci: six of these loci contain genes previously known or suspected to regulate blood pressure (GUCY1A3-GUCY1B3, NPR3-C5orf23, ADM, FURIN-FES, GOSR2, GNAS-EDN3); the other ten provide new clues to blood pressure physiology. A genetic risk score based on 29 genome-wide significant variants was associated with hypertension, left ventricular wall thickness, stroke and coronary artery disease, but not kidney disease or kidney function. We also observed associations with blood pressure in East Asian, South Asian and African ancestry individuals. Our findings provide new insights into the genetics and biology of blood pressure, and suggest potential novel therapeutic pathways for cardiovascular disease prevention.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3340926/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3340926/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉International Consortium for Blood Pressure Genome-Wide Association Studies -- Ehret, Georg B -- Munroe, Patricia B -- Rice, Kenneth M -- Bochud, Murielle -- Johnson, Andrew D -- Chasman, Daniel I -- Smith, Albert V -- Tobin, Martin D -- Verwoert, Germaine C -- Hwang, Shih-Jen -- Pihur, Vasyl -- Vollenweider, Peter -- O'Reilly, Paul F -- Amin, Najaf -- Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L -- Teumer, Alexander -- Glazer, Nicole L -- Launer, Lenore -- Zhao, Jing Hua -- Aulchenko, Yurii -- Heath, Simon -- Sober, Siim -- Parsa, Afshin -- Luan, Jian'an -- Arora, Pankaj -- Dehghan, Abbas -- Zhang, Feng -- Lucas, Gavin -- Hicks, Andrew A -- Jackson, Anne U -- Peden, John F -- Tanaka, Toshiko -- Wild, Sarah H -- Rudan, Igor -- Igl, Wilmar -- Milaneschi, Yuri -- Parker, Alex N -- Fava, Cristiano -- Chambers, John C -- Fox, Ervin R -- Kumari, Meena -- Go, Min Jin -- van der Harst, Pim -- Kao, Wen Hong Linda -- Sjogren, Marketa -- Vinay, D G -- Alexander, Myriam -- Tabara, Yasuharu -- Shaw-Hawkins, Sue -- Whincup, Peter H -- Liu, Yongmei -- Shi, Gang -- Kuusisto, Johanna -- Tayo, Bamidele -- Seielstad, Mark -- Sim, Xueling -- Nguyen, Khanh-Dung Hoang -- Lehtimaki, Terho -- Matullo, Giuseppe -- Wu, Ying -- Gaunt, Tom R -- Onland-Moret, N Charlotte -- Cooper, Matthew N -- Platou, Carl G P -- Org, Elin -- Hardy, Rebecca -- Dahgam, Santosh -- Palmen, Jutta -- Vitart, Veronique -- Braund, Peter S -- Kuznetsova, Tatiana -- Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M -- Adeyemo, Adebowale -- Palmas, Walter -- Campbell, Harry -- Ludwig, Barbara -- Tomaszewski, Maciej -- Tzoulaki, Ioanna -- Palmer, Nicholette D -- CARDIoGRAM consortium -- CKDGen Consortium -- KidneyGen Consortium -- EchoGen consortium -- CHARGE-HF consortium -- Aspelund, Thor -- Garcia, Melissa -- Chang, Yen-Pei C -- O'Connell, Jeffrey R -- Steinle, Nanette I -- Grobbee, Diederick E -- Arking, Dan E -- Kardia, Sharon L -- Morrison, Alanna C -- Hernandez, Dena -- Najjar, Samer -- McArdle, Wendy L -- Hadley, David -- Brown, Morris J -- Connell, John M -- Hingorani, Aroon D -- Day, Ian N M -- Lawlor, Debbie A -- Beilby, John P -- Lawrence, Robert W -- Clarke, Robert -- Hopewell, Jemma C -- Ongen, Halit -- Dreisbach, Albert W -- Li, Yali -- Young, J Hunter -- Bis, Joshua C -- Kahonen, Mika -- Viikari, Jorma -- Adair, Linda S -- Lee, Nanette R -- Chen, Ming-Huei -- Olden, Matthias -- Pattaro, Cristian -- Bolton, Judith A Hoffman -- Kottgen, Anna -- Bergmann, Sven -- Mooser, Vincent -- Chaturvedi, Nish -- Frayling, Timothy M -- Islam, Muhammad -- Jafar, Tazeen H -- Erdmann, Jeanette -- Kulkarni, Smita R -- Bornstein, Stefan R -- Grassler, Jurgen -- Groop, Leif -- Voight, Benjamin F -- Kettunen, Johannes -- Howard, Philip -- Taylor, Andrew -- Guarrera, Simonetta -- Ricceri, Fulvio -- Emilsson, Valur -- Plump, Andrew -- Barroso, Ines -- Khaw, Kay-Tee -- Weder, Alan B -- Hunt, Steven C -- Sun, Yan V -- Bergman, Richard N -- Collins, Francis S -- Bonnycastle, Lori L -- Scott, Laura J -- Stringham, Heather M -- Peltonen, Leena -- Perola, Markus -- Vartiainen, Erkki -- Brand, Stefan-Martin -- Staessen, Jan A -- Wang, Thomas J -- Burton, Paul R -- Soler Artigas, Maria -- Dong, Yanbin -- Snieder, Harold -- Wang, Xiaoling -- Zhu, Haidong -- Lohman, Kurt K -- Rudock, Megan E -- Heckbert, Susan R -- Smith, Nicholas L -- Wiggins, Kerri L -- Doumatey, Ayo -- Shriner, Daniel -- Veldre, Gudrun -- Viigimaa, Margus -- Kinra, Sanjay -- Prabhakaran, Dorairaj -- Tripathy, Vikal -- Langefeld, Carl D -- Rosengren, Annika -- Thelle, Dag S -- Corsi, Anna Maria -- Singleton, Andrew -- Forrester, Terrence -- Hilton, Gina -- McKenzie, Colin A -- Salako, Tunde -- Iwai, Naoharu -- Kita, Yoshikuni -- Ogihara, Toshio -- Ohkubo, Takayoshi -- Okamura, Tomonori -- Ueshima, Hirotsugu -- Umemura, Satoshi -- Eyheramendy, Susana -- Meitinger, Thomas -- Wichmann, H-Erich -- Cho, Yoon Shin -- Kim, Hyung-Lae -- Lee, Jong-Young -- Scott, James -- Sehmi, Joban S -- Zhang, Weihua -- Hedblad, Bo -- Nilsson, Peter -- Smith, George Davey -- Wong, Andrew -- Narisu, Narisu -- Stancakova, Alena -- Raffel, Leslie J -- Yao, Jie -- Kathiresan, Sekar -- O'Donnell, Christopher J -- Schwartz, Stephen M -- Ikram, M Arfan -- Longstreth, W T Jr -- Mosley, Thomas H -- Seshadri, Sudha -- Shrine, Nick R G -- Wain, Louise V -- Morken, Mario A -- Swift, Amy J -- Laitinen, Jaana -- Prokopenko, Inga -- Zitting, Paavo -- Cooper, Jackie A -- Humphries, Steve E -- Danesh, John -- Rasheed, Asif -- Goel, Anuj -- Hamsten, Anders -- Watkins, Hugh -- Bakker, Stephan J L -- van Gilst, Wiek H -- Janipalli, Charles S -- Mani, K Radha -- Yajnik, Chittaranjan S -- Hofman, Albert -- Mattace-Raso, Francesco U S -- Oostra, Ben A -- Demirkan, Ayse -- Isaacs, Aaron -- Rivadeneira, Fernando -- Lakatta, Edward G -- Orru, Marco -- Scuteri, Angelo -- Ala-Korpela, Mika -- Kangas, Antti J -- Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka -- Soininen, Pasi -- Tukiainen, Taru -- Wurtz, Peter -- Ong, Rick Twee-Hee -- Dorr, Marcus -- Kroemer, Heyo K -- Volker, Uwe -- Volzke, Henry -- Galan, Pilar -- Hercberg, Serge -- Lathrop, Mark -- Zelenika, Diana -- Deloukas, Panos -- Mangino, Massimo -- Spector, Tim D -- Zhai, Guangju -- Meschia, James F -- Nalls, Michael A -- Sharma, Pankaj -- Terzic, Janos -- Kumar, M V Kranthi -- Denniff, Matthew -- Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa -- Wagenknecht, Lynne E -- Fowkes, F Gerald R -- Charchar, Fadi J -- Schwarz, Peter E H -- Hayward, Caroline -- Guo, Xiuqing -- Rotimi, Charles -- Bots, Michiel L -- Brand, Eva -- Samani, Nilesh J -- Polasek, Ozren -- Talmud, Philippa J -- Nyberg, Fredrik -- Kuh, Diana -- Laan, Maris -- Hveem, Kristian -- Palmer, Lyle J -- van der Schouw, Yvonne T -- Casas, Juan P -- Mohlke, Karen L -- Vineis, Paolo -- Raitakari, Olli -- Ganesh, Santhi K -- Wong, Tien Y -- Tai, E Shyong -- Cooper, Richard S -- Laakso, Markku -- Rao, Dabeeru C -- Harris, Tamara B -- Morris, Richard W -- Dominiczak, Anna F -- Kivimaki, Mika -- Marmot, Michael G -- Miki, Tetsuro -- Saleheen, Danish -- Chandak, Giriraj R -- Coresh, Josef -- Navis, Gerjan -- Salomaa, Veikko -- Han, Bok-Ghee -- Zhu, Xiaofeng -- Kooner, Jaspal S -- Melander, Olle -- Ridker, Paul M -- Bandinelli, Stefania -- Gyllensten, Ulf B -- Wright, Alan F -- Wilson, James F -- Ferrucci, Luigi -- Farrall, Martin -- Tuomilehto, Jaakko -- Pramstaller, Peter P -- Elosua, Roberto -- Soranzo, Nicole -- Sijbrands, Eric J G -- Altshuler, David -- Loos, Ruth J F -- Shuldiner, Alan R -- Gieger, Christian -- Meneton, Pierre -- Uitterlinden, Andre G -- Wareham, Nicholas J -- Gudnason, Vilmundur -- Rotter, Jerome I -- Rettig, Rainer -- Uda, Manuela -- Strachan, David P -- Witteman, Jacqueline C M -- Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa -- Beckmann, Jacques S -- Boerwinkle, Eric -- Vasan, Ramachandran S -- Boehnke, Michael -- Larson, Martin G -- Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta -- Psaty, Bruce M -- Abecasis, Goncalo R -- Chakravarti, Aravinda -- Elliott, Paul -- van Duijn, Cornelia M -- Newton-Cheh, Christopher -- Levy, Daniel -- Caulfield, Mark J -- Johnson, Toby -- 068545/Z/02/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 070191/Z/03/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 077016/Z/05/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 079895/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 080747/Z/06/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 090532/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 1R01AG032098-01A/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- 1RL1MH083268-01/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- 263 MD 821336/MD/NIMHD NIH HHS/ -- 263 MD 9164/MD/NIMHD NIH HHS/ -- 263-MA-410953/PHS HHS/ -- 2M01RR010284/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- 33014/PHS HHS/ -- 55005617/Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- 5R01HL086694-03/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- 5R01HL087679-02/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- 5R01HL08770002/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- 5R01MH63706:02/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- 5U01CA086308/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- AG13196/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- CH/03/001/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- CZB/4/276/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- CZB/4/710/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- DK062370/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK063491/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK072193/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK075787/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK078150/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK56350/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- ES10126/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- FS05/125/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- G0000934/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0100222/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0400874/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0401527/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0500539/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0501942/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- G0501942/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0600331/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0600705/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0601966/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0700931/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0701863/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0801056/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0902037/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0902313/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G1000143/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G19/35/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G20234/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- G8802774/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G9521010/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G9521010D/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- HG003054/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- HG005581/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- HHSN268200625226C/PHS HHS/ -- HHSN268200782096/PHS HHS/ -- HHSN268200782096C/PHS HHS/ -- HL 54512/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL-87660/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL043851/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL080025/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL084729/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL085144/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL086718/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL087647/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL098283/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL36310/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL45508/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL53353/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL54512/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HS06516/HS/AHRQ HHS/ -- K12RR023250/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- M01 RR16500/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- M01-RR00425/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- MC_PC_U127561128/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_U106179471/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_U106188470/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_U123092720/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_U123092723/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_U127561128/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_U137686857/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_UP_A100_1003/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MOP-82810/Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- MOP172605/Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- MOP77682/Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- N01 HC-15103/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01 HC-55222/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01 HC-95159/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01 HC-95169/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-AG-1-2109/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- N01-AG-12100/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-25195/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-35129/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-45133/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-55015/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-55016/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-55018/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-55019/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-55020/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-55021/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-55022/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-75150/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-85079/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-85080/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-85081/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-85082/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-85083/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-85084/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-85085/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-85086/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-95160/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-95161/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-95162/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-95163/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-95164/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-95165/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-95166/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-95167/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-95168/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HD-1-3107/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- N01AG6210/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- N01AG62101/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- N01AG62103/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- N02-HL-6-4278/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P01CA055075/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01CA087969/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 ES010126/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- P30ES007033/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- PG/02/128/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- PG97012/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- PG97027/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- R01 AG017644-09S1/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG18728/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK072193/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK078150/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL073410/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL085251/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL086694/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL086694-03/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL086694-04A1/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL086694-05/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL087647/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL087652/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL088119/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS39987/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS42733/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01DK058845/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01DK066574/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01HL056931/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL060894/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL060919/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL06094/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL061019/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL071051/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL071205/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL071250/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL071251/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL071252/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL071258/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL071259/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL086694/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL087641/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL089650-02/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL59367/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R03 TW007165/TW/FIC NIH HHS/ -- R37HL051021/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- RG/07/005/23633/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- RG/07/008/23674/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- RG/08/008/25291/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- RG/08/013/25942/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- RG/08/014/24067/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- RG/98002/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- RG08/01/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- RR-024156/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- RR20649/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- S06GM008016-320107/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- S06GM008016-380111/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- SP/04/002/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- SP/08/005/25115/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- TW008288/TW/FIC NIH HHS/ -- TW05596/TW/FIC NIH HHS/ -- U01 DK062418/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U01 GM074518-04/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL054466/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL054466-11/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL054471/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL054473/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL054527/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL072515-06/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL080295/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL084756/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 NS069208/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- U01 NS069208-01/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- U01DE018903/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/ -- U01DE01899/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/ -- U01HG004399/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01HG004402/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01HG004415/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01HG004422/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01HG004423/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01HG004436/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01HG004438/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01HG004446/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01HG004726/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01HG004728/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01HG004729/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01HG004735/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01HG004738/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U10 HL054512/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U10HL054512/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U54 RR020278/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- UL1RR025005/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Sep 11;478(7367):103-9. doi: 10.1038/nature10405.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21909115" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Africa/ethnology ; Asia/ethnology ; Blood Pressure/*genetics/physiology ; Cardiovascular Diseases/*genetics ; Coronary Artery Disease/genetics ; Europe/ethnology ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; Humans ; Hypertension/genetics ; Kidney Diseases/genetics ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/*genetics ; Stroke/genetics
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-10-04
    Description: The subventricular zone of many adult non-human mammals generates large numbers of new neurons destined for the olfactory bulb. Along the walls of the lateral ventricles, immature neuronal progeny migrate in tangentially oriented chains that coalesce into a rostral migratory stream (RMS) connecting the subventricular zone to the olfactory bulb. The adult human subventricular zone, in contrast, contains a hypocellular gap layer separating the ependymal lining from a periventricular ribbon of astrocytes. Some of these subventricular zone astrocytes can function as neural stem cells in vitro, but their function in vivo remains controversial. An initial report found few subventricular zone proliferating cells and rare migrating immature neurons in the RMS of adult humans. In contrast, a subsequent study indicated robust proliferation and migration in the human subventricular zone and RMS. Here we find that the infant human subventricular zone and RMS contain an extensive corridor of migrating immature neurons before 18 months of age but, contrary to previous reports, this germinal activity subsides in older children and is nearly extinct by adulthood. Surprisingly, during this limited window of neurogenesis, not all new neurons in the human subventricular zone are destined for the olfactory bulb--we describe a major migratory pathway that targets the prefrontal cortex in humans. Together, these findings reveal robust streams of tangentially migrating immature neurons in human early postnatal subventricular zone and cortex. These pathways represent potential targets of neurological injuries affecting neonates.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3197903/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3197903/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sanai, Nader -- Nguyen, Thuhien -- Ihrie, Rebecca A -- Mirzadeh, Zaman -- Tsai, Hui-Hsin -- Wong, Michael -- Gupta, Nalin -- Berger, Mitchel S -- Huang, Eric -- Garcia-Verdugo, Jose-Manuel -- Rowitch, David H -- Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo -- F32 NS 058180/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- F32 NS058180-01A1/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- K26 OD010927/OD/NIH HHS/ -- K26 RR024858/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- K26 RR024858-02/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- R01 HD032116/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01 HD032116-11/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS028478/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS028478-17/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS059893/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS059893-03/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R37 HD032116/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R37 HD032116-14/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R37 NS028478/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R37 NS028478-10/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Sep 28;478(7369):382-6. doi: 10.1038/nature10487.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Eli and Edythe Broad Institute of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21964341" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adolescent ; Adult ; Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Brain/*cytology/*growth & development ; *Cell Movement ; Cell Proliferation ; Child ; Child, Preschool ; Humans ; Infant ; Infant, Newborn ; Middle Aged ; Neurons/*cytology ; Olfactory Pathways/cytology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-06-28
    Description: Editing of the human genome to correct disease-causing mutations is a promising approach for the treatment of genetic disorders. Genome editing improves on simple gene-replacement strategies by effecting in situ correction of a mutant gene, thus restoring normal gene function under the control of endogenous regulatory elements and reducing risks associated with random insertion into the genome. Gene-specific targeting has historically been limited to mouse embryonic stem cells. The development of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) has permitted efficient genome editing in transformed and primary cells that were previously thought to be intractable to such genetic manipulation. In vitro, ZFNs have been shown to promote efficient genome editing via homology-directed repair by inducing a site-specific double-strand break (DSB) at a target locus, but it is unclear whether ZFNs can induce DSBs and stimulate genome editing at a clinically meaningful level in vivo. Here we show that ZFNs are able to induce DSBs efficiently when delivered directly to mouse liver and that, when co-delivered with an appropriately designed gene-targeting vector, they can stimulate gene replacement through both homology-directed and homology-independent targeted gene insertion at the ZFN-specified locus. The level of gene targeting achieved was sufficient to correct the prolonged clotting times in a mouse model of haemophilia B, and remained persistent after induced liver regeneration. Thus, ZFN-driven gene correction can be achieved in vivo, raising the possibility of genome editing as a viable strategy for the treatment of genetic disease.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3152293/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3152293/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Li, Hojun -- Haurigot, Virginia -- Doyon, Yannick -- Li, Tianjian -- Wong, Sunnie Y -- Bhagwat, Anand S -- Malani, Nirav -- Anguela, Xavier M -- Sharma, Rajiv -- Ivanciu, Lacramiora -- Murphy, Samuel L -- Finn, Jonathan D -- Khazi, Fayaz R -- Zhou, Shangzhen -- Paschon, David E -- Rebar, Edward J -- Bushman, Frederic D -- Gregory, Philip D -- Holmes, Michael C -- High, Katherine A -- P01 HL064190/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P01 HL064190-11A1/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- T32 HL007150/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- T32 HL007150-35/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Jun 26;475(7355):217-21. doi: 10.1038/nature10177.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Hematology, CTRB 5000, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 3501 Civic Center Boulevard, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21706032" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Base Sequence ; Cell Line, Tumor ; DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded ; DNA Repair/*genetics ; *Disease Models, Animal ; Endonucleases/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Exons/genetics ; Factor IX/analysis/genetics ; Gene Targeting/*methods ; Genetic Therapy/*methods ; Genetic Vectors/genetics ; Genome/*genetics ; HEK293 Cells ; Hemophilia B/*genetics/physiopathology ; *Hemostasis ; Humans ; Introns/genetics ; Liver/metabolism ; Liver Regeneration ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mutation/genetics ; Phenotype ; Sequence Homology ; Zinc Fingers
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Broadly neutralizing antibodies against highly variable viral pathogens are much sought after to treat or protect against global circulating viruses. Here we probed the neutralizing antibody repertoires of four human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected donors with remarkably broad and potent neutralizing responses and rescued 17 new monoclonal antibodies that neutralize broadly across clades. Many of the new monoclonal antibodies are almost tenfold more potent than the recently described PG9, PG16 and VRC01 broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies and 100-fold more potent than the original prototype HIV broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. The monoclonal antibodies largely recapitulate the neutralization breadth found in the corresponding donor serum and many recognize novel epitopes on envelope (Env) glycoprotein gp120, illuminating new targets for vaccine design. Analysis of neutralization by the full complement of anti-HIV broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies now available reveals that certain combinations of antibodies should offer markedly more favourable coverage of the enormous diversity of global circulating viruses than others and these combinations might be sought in active or passive immunization regimes. Overall, the isolation of multiple HIV broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies from several donors that, in aggregate, provide broad coverage at low concentrations is a highly positive indicator for the eventual design of an effective antibody-based HIV vaccine.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3393110/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3393110/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Walker, Laura M -- Huber, Michael -- Doores, Katie J -- Falkowska, Emilia -- Pejchal, Robert -- Julien, Jean-Philippe -- Wang, Sheng-Kai -- Ramos, Alejandra -- Chan-Hui, Po-Ying -- Moyle, Matthew -- Mitcham, Jennifer L -- Hammond, Phillip W -- Olsen, Ole A -- Phung, Pham -- Fling, Steven -- Wong, Chi-Huey -- Phogat, Sanjay -- Wrin, Terri -- Simek, Melissa D -- Protocol G Principal Investigators -- Koff, Wayne C -- Wilson, Ian A -- Burton, Dennis R -- Poignard, Pascal -- R01 AI033292/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI084817/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Sep 22;477(7365):466-70. doi: 10.1038/nature10373.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Immunology and Microbial Science and IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21849977" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: AIDS Vaccines/biosynthesis/immunology ; Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology ; Antibodies, Neutralizing/*immunology ; Cell Line ; Epitope Mapping ; Epitopes/chemistry/immunology ; Glycoproteins/chemistry/immunology ; Glycosylation ; HEK293 Cells ; HIV/*classification/*immunology/isolation & purification ; HIV Antibodies/*immunology ; HIV Infections/immunology/therapy ; Human Immunodeficiency Virus Proteins/chemistry/immunology ; Humans ; Immune Sera/blood/immunology ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Neutralization Tests
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2012-08-24
    Description: Mutations generate sequence diversity and provide a substrate for selection. The rate of de novo mutations is therefore of major importance to evolution. Here we conduct a study of genome-wide mutation rates by sequencing the entire genomes of 78 Icelandic parent-offspring trios at high coverage. We show that in our samples, with an average father's age of 29.7, the average de novo mutation rate is 1.20 x 10(-8) per nucleotide per generation. Most notably, the diversity in mutation rate of single nucleotide polymorphisms is dominated by the age of the father at conception of the child. The effect is an increase of about two mutations per year. An exponential model estimates paternal mutations doubling every 16.5 years. After accounting for random Poisson variation, father's age is estimated to explain nearly all of the remaining variation in the de novo mutation counts. These observations shed light on the importance of the father's age on the risk of diseases such as schizophrenia and autism.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3548427/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3548427/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kong, Augustine -- Frigge, Michael L -- Masson, Gisli -- Besenbacher, Soren -- Sulem, Patrick -- Magnusson, Gisli -- Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A -- Sigurdsson, Asgeir -- Jonasdottir, Aslaug -- Jonasdottir, Adalbjorg -- Wong, Wendy S W -- Sigurdsson, Gunnar -- Walters, G Bragi -- Steinberg, Stacy -- Helgason, Hannes -- Thorleifsson, Gudmar -- Gudbjartsson, Daniel F -- Helgason, Agnar -- Magnusson, Olafur Th -- Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur -- Stefansson, Kari -- MH071425/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH071425/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Aug 23;488(7412):471-5. doi: 10.1038/nature11396.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉deCODE Genetics, Sturlugata 8, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland. kong@decode.is〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22914163" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Autistic Disorder/epidemiology/etiology/*genetics ; Chromosomes, Human/genetics ; Female ; *Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; Genome, Human/genetics ; Humans ; Iceland/epidemiology ; Male ; Middle Aged ; Mothers ; *Mutation Rate ; Ovum/metabolism ; *Paternal Age ; Pedigree ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Risk Factors ; Schizophrenia/epidemiology/etiology/*genetics ; Selection, Genetic/genetics ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Spermatozoa/metabolism ; Young Adult
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2012-09-11
    Description: The RV144 trial demonstrated 31% vaccine efficacy at preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection. Antibodies against the HIV-1 envelope variable loops 1 and 2 (Env V1 and V2) correlated inversely with infection risk. We proposed that vaccine-induced immune responses against V1/V2 would have a selective effect against, or sieve, HIV-1 breakthrough viruses. A total of 936 HIV-1 genome sequences from 44 vaccine and 66 placebo recipients were examined. We show that vaccine-induced immune responses were associated with two signatures in V2 at amino acid positions 169 and 181. Vaccine efficacy against viruses matching the vaccine at position 169 was 48% (confidence interval 18% to 66%; P = 0.0036), whereas vaccine efficacy against viruses mismatching the vaccine at position 181 was 78% (confidence interval 35% to 93%; P = 0.0028). Residue 169 is in a cationic glycosylated region recognized by broadly neutralizing and RV144-derived antibodies. The predicted distance between the two signature sites (21 +/- 7 A) and their match/mismatch dichotomy indicate that multiple factors may be involved in the protection observed in RV144. Genetic signatures of RV144 vaccination in V2 complement the finding of an association between high V1/V2-binding antibodies and reduced risk of HIV-1 acquisition, and provide evidence that vaccine-induced V2 responses plausibly had a role in the partial protection conferred by the RV144 regimen.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3551291/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3551291/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Rolland, Morgane -- Edlefsen, Paul T -- Larsen, Brendan B -- Tovanabutra, Sodsai -- Sanders-Buell, Eric -- Hertz, Tomer -- deCamp, Allan C -- Carrico, Chris -- Menis, Sergey -- Magaret, Craig A -- Ahmed, Hasan -- Juraska, Michal -- Chen, Lennie -- Konopa, Philip -- Nariya, Snehal -- Stoddard, Julia N -- Wong, Kim -- Zhao, Hong -- Deng, Wenjie -- Maust, Brandon S -- Bose, Meera -- Howell, Shana -- Bates, Adam -- Lazzaro, Michelle -- O'Sullivan, Annemarie -- Lei, Esther -- Bradfield, Andrea -- Ibitamuno, Grace -- Assawadarachai, Vatcharain -- O'Connell, Robert J -- deSouza, Mark S -- Nitayaphan, Sorachai -- Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai -- Robb, Merlin L -- McLellan, Jason S -- Georgiev, Ivelin -- Kwong, Peter D -- Carlson, Jonathan M -- Michael, Nelson L -- Schief, William R -- Gilbert, Peter B -- Mullins, James I -- Kim, Jerome H -- 2R37AI05465-10/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- K25 AI087397/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI054165/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI054165/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- UM1 AI068635/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Y01 AI2642-12/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Y1-AI-2642-12/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Oct 18;490(7420):417-20. doi: 10.1038/nature11519. Epub 2012 Sep 10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉US Military HIV Research Program, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910, USA. mrolland@hivresearch.org〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22960785" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: AIDS Vaccines/adverse effects/*immunology ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; HIV Antibodies/immunology ; HIV Infections/immunology/*prevention & control/*virology ; HIV-1/*genetics/*immunology ; Humans ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Phylogeny ; Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/*genetics/*immunology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2012-12-04
    Description: Although initially viewed as unregulated, increasing evidence suggests that cellular necrosis often proceeds through a specific molecular program. In particular, death ligands such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha activate necrosis by stimulating the formation of a complex containing receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) and receptor-interacting protein 3 (RIP3). Relatively little is known regarding how this complex formation is regulated. Here, we show that the NAD-dependent deacetylase SIRT2 binds constitutively to RIP3 and that deletion or knockdown of SIRT2 prevents formation of the RIP1-RIP3 complex in mice. Furthermore, genetic or pharmacological inhibition of SIRT2 blocks cellular necrosis induced by TNF-alpha. We further demonstrate that RIP1 is a critical target of SIRT2-dependent deacetylation. Using gain- and loss-of-function mutants, we demonstrate that acetylation of RIP1 lysine 530 modulates RIP1-RIP3 complex formation and TNF-alpha-stimulated necrosis. In the setting of ischaemia-reperfusion injury, RIP1 is deacetylated in a SIRT2-dependent fashion. Furthermore, the hearts of Sirt2(-/-) mice, or wild-type mice treated with a specific pharmacological inhibitor of SIRT2, show marked protection from ischaemic injury. Taken together, these results implicate SIRT2 as an important regulator of programmed necrosis and indicate that inhibitors of this deacetylase may constitute a novel approach to protect against necrotic injuries, including ischaemic stroke and myocardial infarction.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Narayan, Nisha -- Lee, In Hye -- Borenstein, Ronen -- Sun, Junhui -- Wong, Renee -- Tong, Guang -- Fergusson, Maria M -- Liu, Jie -- Rovira, Ilsa I -- Cheng, Hwei-Ling -- Wang, Guanghui -- Gucek, Marjan -- Lombard, David -- Alt, Fredrick W -- Sack, Michael N -- Murphy, Elizabeth -- Cao, Liu -- Finkel, Toren -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Dec 13;492(7428):199-204. doi: 10.1038/nature11700. Epub 2012 Nov 28.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Molecular Medicine, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23201684" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetylation ; Animals ; Cell Line ; Female ; HEK293 Cells ; HeLa Cells ; Humans ; Jurkat Cells ; Male ; Mice ; Necrosis/*enzymology ; Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins/metabolism ; Protein Binding ; Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism ; Sirtuin 2/*genetics/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-07-23
    Description: Mononuclear non-haem iron (NHFe) enzymes catalyse a broad range of oxidative reactions, including halogenation, hydroxylation, ring closure, desaturation and aromatic ring cleavage reactions. They are involved in a number of biological processes, including phenylalanine metabolism, the production of neurotransmitters, the hypoxic response and the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. The reactive intermediate in the catalytic cycles of these enzymes is a high-spin S = 2 Fe(IV)=O species, which has been trapped for a number of NHFe enzymes, including the halogenase SyrB2 (syringomycin biosynthesis enzyme 2). Computational studies aimed at understanding the reactivity of this Fe(IV)=O intermediate are limited in applicability owing to the paucity of experimental knowledge about its geometric and electronic structure. Synchrotron-based nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) is a sensitive and effective method that defines the dependence of the vibrational modes involving Fe on the nature of the Fe(IV)=O active site. Here we present NRVS structural characterization of the reactive Fe(IV)=O intermediate of a NHFe enzyme, namely the halogenase SyrB2 from the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. This intermediate reacts via an initial hydrogen-atom abstraction step, performing subsequent halogenation of the native substrate or hydroxylation of non-native substrates. A correlation of the experimental NRVS data to electronic structure calculations indicates that the substrate directs the orientation of the Fe(IV)=O intermediate, presenting specific frontier molecular orbitals that can activate either selective halogenation or hydroxylation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4123442/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4123442/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wong, Shaun D -- Srnec, Martin -- Matthews, Megan L -- Liu, Lei V -- Kwak, Yeonju -- Park, Kiyoung -- Bell, Caleb B 3rd -- Alp, E Ercan -- Zhao, Jiyong -- Yoda, Yoshitaka -- Kitao, Shinji -- Seto, Makoto -- Krebs, Carsten -- Bollinger, J Martin Jr -- Solomon, Edward I -- GM-40392/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM-69657/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM040392/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM069657/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Jul 18;499(7458):320-3. doi: 10.1038/nature12304.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23868262" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Biocatalysis ; Halogenation ; Hydroxylation ; Iron/*chemistry ; Oxidoreductases/*chemistry/metabolism ; Pseudomonas syringae/enzymology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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