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  • 1990-1994  (6)
  • 1960-1964
  • 1992  (6)
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  • 1990-1994  (6)
  • 1960-1964
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The aim of these animal experiments was to characterize and evaluate the healing-in of root analogue titanium implants fitting with high precision to the alveolar wall. Four beagle dogs were used in the study. The roots of the 3rd and 4th mandibular premolars in both quadrants of 3 dogs and in 1 quadrant of 1 dog (dog 4) were extracted after hemisection. Each root was machine-copied to 1 titanium analogue. In dog 4, however, 2 titanium analogues were fabricated from each of the 4 extracted roots. This enabled insertion of analogues also into the contralateral sockets obtained by extraction of the corresponding roots immediately before implant installation, which was undertaken 2 weeks after the first extractions. Thus, in all, 32 analogues were implanted in their respective (or contralateral) sockets following ridge incision and elevation of mucoperiosteal flaps. The analogues were carefully covered by the repositioned flaps. In dog 4, 2 analogues from the immediate sockets and 2 from the 2-week sockets were surgically exposed and supplied with titanium crowns after a healing period of 2 months. The healing after implantation was evaluated by clinical, radiographic and histological measures after 2, 12 or 36 months. Two analogues (6%) were lost due to early (during the 1st week) exposure to the oral cavity. Another 2 analogues (6%) were, although not exposed, encapsulated by soft tissue and were easily removed with a surgical forceps. Twenty-eight analogues (88%) were healed-in by contact between bone and implant (osseointegration). The mean percentages of bone tissue in contact with the implant of such analogues were 30.5% after 2 months, 64.8% after 12 months and 68.1% after 36 months, as evaluated by histomorphometric analysis. The 4 analogues supplied with titanium crowns carried those with maintained bone anchorage throughout an experimental period of 36 months. The character of the interface between the analogue and the surrounding bone tissue was the same regardless of whether the implantation was performed immediately 1 or 2 weeks after extraction of the roots.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1600-0838
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: The natural course of 46 stress fractures of the tibia were studied in relation to sports activity, diagnosis and treatment in 28 recreational athletes and 13 elite athletes. Two major types of stress fractures were observed. Thirty athletes sustained a posteriomedial fracture of the tibia and claimed a sudden onset of exertional pain. The initial symptoms occurred during running or orienteering (n= 19), soccer (n= 4), workout or dancing (n= 3), triathlon, basketball, badminton and tennis (one each) and were similarity distributed between left and right leg. Scintigraphs showed Zwas type I/II lesions, while X-rays were negative in most cases. The patients were treated only with restriction in sports activities. The fractures healed within 8–24 weeks with excellent or good results. The remaining 11 athletes had anterior margin stress fractures with a slow onset of exertional pain and a long delay in diagnosis. These injuries occurred in 4 long-distance runners, 2 handball players, 2 dancers, 1 volleyball player, 1 triathloner and 1 decathloner. They were located in the nondominant left leg (in three cases bilateral). The fractures showed Zwas I or II lesions on scintigrams, but differed from the posteriomedial injuries on the typical V-shape appearence on X-ray. The patients had conservative treatment, including immobility and restriction in sports activities. Four of the patients were operated when not symptom-free after 12–34 months. All elite athletes (n= 5) in this group had to interrupt then-elite carreer. At follow up 24–60 months after the initial symptoms, only 1 patient was symptom-free. Thus, posteriomedial tibial stress fractures show a sudden onset and benign natural course, while anterior stress fractures should be treated with caution. The use of bone scintigraphy should be emphasized early when an athlete presents with exertional lower leg pain.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1600-0838
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: A 2-week training period 2000 meters above sea level performed by 6 male elite Swedish runners influenced neither basal anabolic (total and non-sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG)-bound testosterone (NST) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) nor catabolic (cortisol) hormones when comparing serum levels prior to and after the training camp. The anabolic vs catabolic hormone balance, expressed as the NST: cortisol ratio, also remained unchanged as well as SHBG and body mass. Thus, training at 2000 meters above sea level, often practised by elite runners to improve performance in competition at sea level, does not result in a catabolic situation after return to sea level, as measured by peripheral hormones. However, the adaptation to high altitude was associated with a slight (NS) decrease in testosterone as well as in anabolic vs catabolic balance as measured the third day at high altitude. Simultaneously, a decrease in subjective performance was claimed by the runners, but could not be shown by objective measurements. From day 3 to day 9 at high altitude, all runners claimed a subjective recuperation of performance. Total and non-SHBG-bound testosterone increased significantly from day 3 at high altitude to the first post-camp sea-level test. The results reflect the necessity of adaptation when travelling to races at different altitudes. The Swedish runners had significantly higher cortisol, total testosterone and NST levels compared with basal values of a group of 17 elite Kenyan runners living and training at high altitude. Since the NST cortisol and IGF-1 values were not lower, a catabolic state or malnutrition was not likely to be present. The results might reflect an adaptation to altitude or ethnic variations.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1600-0838
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: Concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) isokinetic knee extensor endurance, during 100 repetitive isokinetic contractions, were analysed in 32 consecutive patients with conservatively treated unilateral anterior cruciate ligament ruptured knees. There were 20 men and 12 women (mean age 34 years). The test was performed 6.8 years after the injury (range 4–14). The uninjured leg in each patient served as control. Lysholm subjective score, Tegner activity score and IKDC grading were used to relate the subjective knee function to muscle performance. Knee extensor endurance for concentric as well as for eccentric contractions were significantly lower in the injured side than the uninjured side. The magnitude of decrease in muscle performance was 7.6% for concentric (range-12 to 27%) and 15.3% for eccentric (range -9 to 50%) endurance. The eccentric injured/uninjured endurance ratio correlated significantly to the Lysholm subjective score. We conclude that the knee extensor endurance is decreased in patients with conservatively treated anterior cruciate ligament-ruptured knees. The eccentric endurance test seems to reflect the patients' subjective knee functioning.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1262
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Parmi 71 patients présentant une réaction paradoxale du sphincter anal, 54 présentaient une constipation ou une dyschésie et 17 étaient incontinents. Ces patients avaient eu une défécographie, un temps de transit colique, une manométrie ano-rectale et une électromyographie. 96% d'entre eux présentaient des perturbations additionnelles de l'anatomie et de la physiologie ano-rectales. 70% de ces patients avaient une défécographie anormale et 42% un temps de transit colique prolongé. Une diminution de la pression anale maximale et de la pression de retenue maximale, indiquant une perturbation de la fonction des sphincters anaux, pourraient être une raison de l'incontinence de ces patients avec réaction paradoxale du sphincter. Cette réaction paradoxale survenait dans le muscle pubo-rectal et dans trois sites examinés du sphincter externe. Il est donc suffisant d'enregistrer l'électromyogramme dans un seul muscle et en un seul point pour diagnostiquer une réaction paradoxale du sphincter. L'absence d'un réflexe normal de fermeture en électromyographie témoigne d'une réaction paradoxale du sphincter. La dénervation était plus prononcée au niveau du sphincter externe que dans le muscle pubo-rectal. Le nerf honteux interne droit était plus souvent atteint que le nerf gauche.
    Notes: Abstract Of 71 patients with paradoxical sphincter reaction, 54 had symptoms of constipation or outlet obstruction and 17 were incontinent. The patients were investigated with defecography, colon transit time, anorectal manometry and electromyography. Ninety-six percent of the patients had additional changes in anorectal anatomy and physiology; 70% of the patients had abnormal defecography and 42% had delayed colon transit time. Decreased maximal anal pressure (MAP) and maximal squeeze pressure (MSP), indicating impaired function of the anal sphincters might be one reason for incontinence in patients with paradoxical sphincter reaction. The paradoxical reaction occurred in the puborectalis muscle and in three tested sites in the external sphincter. It is sufficient to record the EMG activity in one muscle and at one point to diagnose a paradoxical sphincter reaction. The absence of a normal closing reflex on electromyography is evidence for a paradoxical sphincter reaction. Denervation was more pronounced in the external sphincter than in the puborectalis muscle. The right pudendal nerve was subjected to damage more often than the left nerve.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-4838
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract Commercially pure (c.p.) titanium and Ti-6Al-4V implants were inserted in the abdominal wall of rats. The surrounding fluid space, inflammatory cells and fibrous capsule were evaluated after 1, 6 and 12 weeks. Light-microscopic morphometry demonstrated a fluid space around both implant materials which gradually decreased with time. Macrophages were preferentially distributed close to the implant surface in the innermost zone (0–25 µm from the surface). In contrast, fibroblasts and endothelial cells were located mainly in the outer three zones (25–100 µm from the surface). At all time periods studied and around both materials, lymphocytes were detected throughout the surrounding tissue. The outer border of the fibrous capsule, which consisted of macrophages, fibroblasts, endothelial cells and collagen, was difficult to define, in particular during the early phase of healing. At later time stages, 6 and 12 weeks, no difference in width (60–90 µm) was observed between the two materials. No major quantitative differences with respect to the number of different cells, fluid space width and fibrous capsule thickness were noted between the two materials studied. The observed mild inflammatory reaction and the absence of statistically significant differences between c.p. titanium and Ti-6Al-4V in soft tissue indicate that both materials could be suitable for use in soft tissues. In the context of previous comparative studies it may be concluded that the animal species as well as the different implantation locals play an important role in the determination of biocompatibility.
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