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  • 1
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: X-ray structure ; TEM1 ; β-lactamase ; antibiotics ; bacterial resistance ; serine hydrolase ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The X-ray structure of Escherichia coli TEM1β-lactamase has been refined to a crystallorgphic R-factor of 16.4% for 22,510 reflections between 5.0 and 1.8 Å resolution; 199 water molecules and 1 sulphate ion were included in refinement. Except for the tips of a few solvent-exposed side chains, all protein atoms have clear electron density and refined to an average atomic temperature factor of 11 Å2. The estimated coordinates error is 0.17 Å. The substrate binding site is located at the interface of the two domains of the protein and contains 4 water molecules and the sulphate anion. One of these solvent molecules is found at hydrogen bond distance from S70 and E166. S70 and S130 are hydrogen bonded to K73 and K234, respectively. It was found that the E. coli TEM1 and Staphylococcus aureus PC1 β-lactamases crystal structures differ in the relative orientations of the two domains composing the enzymes, which result in a narrowed substrate binding cavity in the TEM1 enzyme. Local but significant differences in the vicinity of this site may explain the occurrence of TEM1 natural mutants with extended substrate specificities. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 21 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: simulated moving bed technology ; chiral separation ; cellulose triacetate ; preparative scale liquid chromatography ; racemic epoxide ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The feasibility of using simulated moving bed technology (SMB) for chiral separation on cellulose triacetate is demonstrated on the preparative scale: 1 kg of a chiral epoxide has been separated. On comparing SMB technology with conventional liquid chromatography it turns out that the main advantage of SMB lies in the significant reduction of mobile phase consumption. The process design for SMB is made theoretically and the predictions are confirmed by our pilot study. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: propranolol ; enantiomers ; immunogen synthesis ; selective antibody ; ELISA ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A selective antibody to (S)-propranolol enantiomer was produced in rabbits by immunization with a new conjugate of N-aminopropylpropranolol-albumin. A hapten was first prepared by condensing (S)-propranolol or the racemate with 3-bromopropylphthalimide followed by hydrazinolysis, and the resulting compound conjugated to serum albumin by means of a glutaraldehyde- or carbodiimide-mediated reaction. Rabbits were immunized, and titres and specificity of antibodies were determined by ELISA. The antibodies obtained were tested with (S)-, (R)-, (R, S)-propranolol, and other structural analogs. Selective (S)-antibodies recognized (S)-propranolol 20 times more avidly than (R)-isomer while an antiserum against (R, S)-propranolol recognized both (S)- and (R)-isomers to about the same degree. ©1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0930-7516
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Industrial Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The optimization of a chemical synthesis aims at an adjustment of the operating conditions, i.e. pH, temperature and initial concentrations, in order to obtain maximum yield, minimum operating costs or similar. The optimization effort may be considerable so that, in many cases, its cost cannot be justified, especially for small volume products. This paper introduces a new strategy, namely to establish the optimum operating conditions with a relatively small effort. The new approach is illustrated by the synthesis of 2-furyl oxirane. In the first step, a simplified mechanistic process model has to be determined on the basis of easily accessible experimental data. Initial and final concentrations of all reacting components, reaction time and temperature must be known. A two-step evaluation yields the stoichiometric coefficients of all the occurring reactions as well as the parameters of the Arrhenius model. This so-called trend model is used in the optimization of the operating conditions. It is not only important to know the optimum operating conditions but also to maintain them as close as possible in practical operation. An adaptive controller is well suited to such an application and its use is discussed.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0935-9648
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary electrophoresis ; Hollow fiber ; Polypropylene ; Capillary dynamic coating ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0935-9648
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Embryonic stem cells ; Chimeras ; Microsatellites ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: An embryonic stem cell line was established from SV129 mouse blastocysts and used to generate chimeric mice by injection into OF1 blastocysts; 18 out of the 30 resulting offspring appeared chimeric as judged from their coat color patterns, and 3 of the 13 males proved to be germ-line chimeras as they transmitted the SV129 agouti phenotype to all or part of their offspring.The degree of chimerism of these males was evaluated for different tissues using polymorphic microsatellite markers amplified by the polymerase chain reaction. It was shown that these new markers can be effectively used to quantitatively estimate levels of chimerism. The CKMM (creatine kinase, muscle) microsatellite system was used to distinguish the SV129 from the OF1 genotype. In all performed tests, the correlation between DNA ratio and signal ratio, expressed as a base 10 logarithm, was shown to exceed or equal 0.98 for known DNA ratios (SV129/OF1) ranging from 1/99 to 99/1. Linear calibration methods were used to predict the % SV129 DNA of a test sample based on the obtained signal ratio. The accuracy of the prediction was evaluated by performing repeated measurements. Differences among three repeated estimates ranged from 2 to 17% for a given sample.Microsatellite systems should be very useful to monitor chimerism involving strains that can not be discerned with coat color or biochemical markers. This will be particularly important when ES methodology becomes available in species other than mice. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: NSAID ; chirality ; enantiomers ; protein binding ; equilibrium dialysis ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Equilibrium dialysis was used to study in vitro the enantioselective binding of R, S, and racemic ketoprofen at physiological pH and temperature in human serum albumin (HSA) (1, 20, and 40 g/liter) and in plasma. The binding of enantiomers in a racemic mixture was studied to see the effect of each isomer on the other's interaction with the protein. The free fractions were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The binding of ketoprofen enantiomers to albumin was enantioselective, depending on both drug and protein concentrations. Enantioselectivity was observed in plasma too but was the opposite of that in HSA at 40 g/liter. The percentage of each isomer unbound was higher in the racemic mixture than with the isomer alone. The displacement of probes specific for HSA sites I and II, studied by spectrofluorimetry, suggests that all three preparations of ketoprofen are bound mainly to site I and secondarily to site II. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Chirality 5 (1993), S. 414-418 
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: gallopamil ; enantiomers ; protein binding ; serum ; α1-acid glycoprotein ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The protein binding of the enantiomers of gallopamil has been investigated in solutions of human serum albumin, α1-acid glycoprotein and serum. Over the range of concentrations attained after oral gallopamil administration, the binding of both enantiomers to albumin, α1-acid glycoprotein, and serum proteins was independent of gallopamil concentration. The binding to both human serum albumin (40 g/liter) [range of fraction bound (fb) R: 0.624 to 0.699; S: 0.502 to 0.605] and α1-acid glycoprotein (0.5 g/liter) (range of fb R: 0.530 to 0.718; S: 0.502 to 0.620) was stereoselective, favoring the (R)-enantiomer (predialysis gallopamil concentrations 2.5 to 10,000 ng/ml). When the enantiomers (predialysis gallopamil concentration 10 ng/ml) were studied separately in drug-free serum samples from six healthy volunteers the fraction of (S)-gallopamil bound (fb: 0.943 ± 0.016) was lower (P 〈 0.05) than that of (R)-gallopamil (fb: 0.960 ± 0.010). The serum protein binding of both (R)- and (S)-gallopamil was unaffected by their optical antipodes (fb R: 0.963 ± 0.011; S: 0.948 ± 0.015) indicating that at therapeutic concentrations a protein binding enantiomer-enantiomer interaction does not occur. The protein binding of (R)- and (S)-gallopamil ex vivo 2 h after single dose oral administration of 50 mg pseudoracemic gallopamil (fb R: 0.960 ± 0.010: predialysis [R] 6.9 to 35.3 ng/ml; S: 0.943 ± 0.016: predialysis [S] 9.5 to 30.7 ng/ml) was comparable to that observed in vitro in drug-free serum. Gallopamil metabolites formed during first-pass following oral administration, therefore, do not influence the protein binding of (R)- or (S)-gallopamil. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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