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  • 1
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Although DNA typing is an accurate, precise, and robust procedure, quality assurance is enhanced by availability of a suitable reference material. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) recently released a Standard Reference Material (SRM) that meets the calibration and quality assurance needs of laboratories that perform DNA typing. Each step of the analytical process of DNA typing may be verified by one or more of twenty different components of the SRM. As newer, more sensitive methods for DNA typing have been introduced into the human identification laboratory repertoire, new SRMs will be required for quality assurance. A second SRM for PCR-based tests is under development and soon to be available, is also described.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1615-5947
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The utility of transserosal photoplethysmographic pulse oximetry (PO) to assess intestinal viability intraoperatively was evaluated using an experimental canine model. Comparisons of PO were made with continuous-wave Doppler ultrasound (CWDU) and fluorescein (FL) using histopathologic examination for control. Clinical examination estimates were included for reference. Four 20 cm portions of small bowel from each of four dogs were made ischemic by mesenteric ligation. Thus 320 individual 1 cm bowel segments were studied by means of PO, CWDU, FL, and control histologic grading for ischemia. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences, with PO matching CWDU and FL in intraoperative assessment of small bowel viability. PO, which is readily available in most operating rooms, is a simpler method than CWDU or FL for assessing intestinal viability. This technique is operator independent, easy to interpret and repeat, and is well tolerated. PO is the preferred alternative for objective intraoperative assessment of intestinal viability.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: Brassica napus ; B. campestris ; B. oleracea ; cotyledon protoplasts ; callus formation and growth ; plant regeneration
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Cotyledons from twelve cultivars of Brassica; B. napus (Westar, Eureka, Global, Pivot and Narc 82); B. campestris: (Arlo, Sonja, Bunyip and Wonk Bok) and B. oleracea (Phenomenal Early, Sugar Loaf and Earliball) were used for protoplast isolation and culture in a comparative study of cell colony and callus formation, and plant regeneration. The formation of cell colonies and callus from protoplast cultures were significantly influenced by the light conditions of seed germination. All twelve cultivars showed callus formation from protoplast cultures derived from cotyledons of seedlings grown in dark for 3 days followed by 1 day dim light (dark/dim light-grown). Callus was obtained in all five liquid media used: modified K8P(1), modified K8P(2), modified MS, modified B and modified NN. In contrast, only six cultivars exhibited callus formation from the protoplasts isolated from cotyledons of seedlings germinated under light conditions for 7 days (light-grown) and in only three media: modified K8P(1), modified MS, modified B. Callus, derived from protoplast cultures isolated from dark/dim light-grown cotyledons and grown on K3 or MS series solid media for about 1 month, could develop shoots when further transferred onto MS series regeneration media. All five cultivars of B. napus, three of the four cultivars of B. campestris (Arlo, Sonja and Bunyip) and one of the three cultivars of B. oleracea (Sugar Loaf) exhibited shoot regeneration from protoplast cultures within 2–3 months after protoplast isolation. The frequency of shoot regeneration ranged among 1–22.5%. A high degree of reproducibility was observed in cultivars Westar, Eureka, Global, Arlo, Bunyip and Sugar Loaf. In contrast, among the six cultivars that formed callus in protoplast culture derived from light-grown cotyledons, only three cultivars from B. napus (Westar, Eureka, Global) exhibited shoot regeneration 5.5 months after protoplast isolation. Regenerated shoots from cultivars Westar, Eureka and Bunyip and Sugar Loaf, which derived from protoplasts of dark/dim light germinated seedling and were induced to root on rooting media, survived in soil and grew to produce silique and set seeds.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: Brassica campestris ; B. napus ; B. oleracea ; cell division ; cell wall regeneration ; cotyledon protoplasts
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Protoplasts isolated from cotyledons of a number of cultivars of Brassica napus, B. campestris and B. oleracea were cultured in different media to study the characteristics of cell wall regeneration and cell division at early stages of culture. Time course analysis using Calcolfluor White staining indicated that cell wall regeneration began in some protoplasts 2–4 h following isolation in all cultivars. 30–70% of cultured cotyledon protoplasts exhibited cell wall regeneration at 24 h and about 60–90% at 72 h after the initiation of culture. Results also indicated that a low percentage (0.4–5.4%) of cultured cotyledon protoplasts entered their first cell division one day after initial culture in all twelve cultivars. The percentage of dividing cells increased linearly up to 40% from 1 to 7 day, indicating that cotyledon protoplasts of Brassica had a high capacity for cell division. Factors that influence the level of cell wall regeneration and cell division during cotyledon protoplast culture have been investigated in this study. Cotyledons from seedlings germinated in a dark/dim light regime provided a satisfactory tissue source for protoplast isolation and culture for all Brassica cultivars used. The percentages of protoplasts exhibiting cell wall regeneration and division were significantly influenced by cultivar and species examined, with protoplasts from all five cultivars of B. campestris showing much lower rates of cell wall regeneration than those of B. napus and B. oleracea over 24–120 h, and with the levels of cell division in B. napus cultivars being much higher than those in B. campestris and B. oleracea over 1–9 days. The capacity of cell wall regeneration and cell division in cotyledon protoplast culture of the Brassica species appears under strong genetic control. Cell wall regeneration in protoplast culture was not affected by the culture medium used. In contrast, the composition of the culture medium played an important role in determining the level of cell division, and the interaction between medium type and cultivars was very significant.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: Mangifera indica ; somatic embryogenesis ; vitrification ; dehydration ; abscisic acid
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Hyperhydricity of immature somatic embryos has been a limiting factor for the development of highly embryogenic suspension cultures of many important mango cultivars. Reversion of hyperhydricity was achieved in two ways: 1) heart-stage somatic embryos (2–3 mm length) were partially dehydrated under controlled conditions at high relative humidity (RH) for 24–48 h and 2) the gelling agent (Gel-Gro) concentration of the plant growth medium was increased from 2.0 to 6.0 g l-1. Partially dehydrated immature somatic embryos were normal in appearance. Somatic embryos that were partially dehydrated germinated precociously when cultured on maturation medium. Although abscisic acid (ABA) did not reverse hyperhydricity of primary somatic embryos, ABA did stimulate the reversal of this abnormal pattern of development among secondary embryos. ABA (500 μM) inhibited precocious germination and permitted somatic embryo maturation. Partially dehydrated, immature somatic embryos (4–7 mm long) remained viable for up to 32 days in the absence of maturation medium under high RH.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1572-994X
    Keywords: herpesvirus ; transcription ; equine herpesvirus ; unique short ; glycoprotein ; protein kinase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The unique short (Us) segment of the genome of equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) strain KyA is comprised of six open reading frames (ORFs) that encode: a) a homolog of the Us2 protein of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1); b) a serine threonine protein kinase that is a homolog of the HSV-1 Us3 protein; c) a homolog of pseudorabies virus glycoprotein gX and HSV-2 gG; d) a novel glycoprotein, EUS4, not encoded by other herpesviruses sequenced to date; e) a homolog of HSV-1 gD; and f) a homolog of HSV-1 Us9. The KyA strain is a deletion mutant that lacks Us sequences encoding gI, gE, and a potential 10 kD polypeptide, and thus may be useful as a parent virus for the generation of live virus vaccines. To complete the elucidation of the transcriptional program of the Us segment, Northern blot hybridization and S1 nuclease analyses were performed on poly(A)+-selected RNA isolated from infected cells maintained under early (phosphonoacetic acid-block) and late conditions. The findings revealed that the gene (EUS2 ORF) encoding the protein kinase is expressed as an early 2.9 kb transcript that overlaps and is 3′ coterminal with a 1.6 kb early transcript that encodes the gG/gX homolog (EUS3 ORF). Two transcripts of 1.6 kb and 5.8 kb are 5′ coterminal and may both encode the novel glycoprotein gene EUS4. The 1.6 kb transcript terminates at a poly(A) signal site downstream of the EUS4 ORF, and the 5.8 kb transcript terminates within the inverted repeat (IR) segment. Overall, the transcriptional program of the EHV-1 KyA Us segment is complex and exhibits similarities to that of HSV-1 Us segment: a) transcripts arise from both DNA strands; b) some transcripts, including those mapping at the termini of the Us segment, extend into the IR segments and are 3′ coterminal with the 1.2 kb IR6 transcript; c) at least one transcript reads through a functional polyadenylation signal; d) some transcripts encoding genes that lie in different reading frames exist as a family of overlapping mRNAs, some in an anti-sense manner. Lastly, of the six Us genes of the EHV-1 KyA strain, only those encoding the EHV-1 protein kinase and the HSV-2 gG/gX homolog are members of the early kinetic class.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Motivated by our recent finding that the singlet–triplet bands of selenoformaldehyde involve an upper state with large zero field splittings, we have extended the theory and written a program for predicting and fitting such rotationally resolved spectra. Triplet state matrix elements for a case (A) basis have been developed, including corrections for centrifugal and spin–centrifugal distortion. The full Hamiltonian matrix has been symmetry adapted, simplifying the problem to four individual matrices of approximately equal size for molecules of orthorhombic symmetry. Diagonalization of these matrices yields triplet state energies that are in agreement with previous treatments using a basis in which the spin splittings are small relative to the rotational intervals. Methods have been developed for sorting the eigenvalues and assigning quantum labels regardless of the magnitude of the spin splittings. The calculation of the relative intensities of the rotational lines within a band has been programmed using transition moment matrix elements from the literature. The selection rules for various upper state symmetries have been developed in a form useful for the analysis of spectra. Band contour predictions of spectra for various coupling cases have been presented. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: High-resolution laser induced phosphorescence spectra of the 820 nm band system of selenoformaldehyde have been recorded with Doppler-limited resolution. Rotational analysis of the 000 bands of D2C80Se, H2C78Se, and H2C80Se revealed only P, Q, and R branches obeying ΔKa=0 selection rules with no evidence of spin splittings. However, these bands show pronounced Zeeman broadening which is linearly dependent on the upper state J value. These results are interpreted as the consequences of case (ab) coupling in the a˜ 3A2 state, in which there is a large zero field splitting due to substantial mixing of two of the spin components with the nearby 3A1(π,π*) state. The only other asymmetric top molecule known to exhibit case (ab) coupling in the triplet state is carbon disulfide. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1520-5126
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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