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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1130
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract  The gradient selected SELINCOR sandwich, a NMR pulse sequence for selecting the signal of a proton bound to a specific carbon atom, was modified and significantly improved by using a 180° selective pulse on carbon. The sequence provides artifact-free carbon selected proton spectra and can serve as a building block for various applications.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1130
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract  The effect of silicon and titanium on the spallation resistance of alumina scales formed on NiCrAlY-type alloys has been investigated using model alloys with different additions of Si or Ti. For this purpose cyclic oxidation experiments were carried out at temperatures between 950 and 1100 °C. For evaluation of the growth and temperature induced stresses in the oxide scales selected samples were analysed by X-ray stress evaluation (XSE) at ambient temperature after various oxidation treatments. The compressive strains in the scales were found to increase with increasing oxidation time, tending to become constant after longer oxidation times. The strains reduced remarkably, when scale damage, such as cracking, started. The developed strains in the oxide scales appeared to be affected by the microstructure of the alloy and the phase distribution in the subsurface depletion layer beneath the oxide. This distribution is affected by the presence of Si and Ti. Apart from the X-ray method, laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) was calibrated for strain measurement by XSE results aiming at applying this method for stress analysis at higher temperatures.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1130
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The adhesion is a fundamental property of hard coatings in view of tribological-mechanical demands. The quantification of adhesion between coating and substrate is with respect to practice not easy to handle, even so the scratch test is the best established and well discussed test method. The present study analyzes the test procedure and proposes a possible evaluation method and interpretation of the results to reach sufficient reproducibility due to a better standardization.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis (BRIC) is an autosomal recessive liver disease characterized by multiple episodes of cholestasis without progression to chronic liver disease. The gene was previously assigned to chromosome 18q21, using a shared segment analysis in three families from the Netherlands. In the present study we report the linkage analysis of an expanded sample of 14 BRIC families, using 15 microsatellite markers from the 18q21 region. Obligate recombinants in two families place the gene in a 7-cM interval, between markers D18S69 and D18S64. All intervening markers had significant LOD scores in two-point linkage analysis. Moreover, we identified one family in which the BRIC gene seems to be unlinked to the 18q21 region, or that represents incomplete penetrance of the BRIC genotype.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Key words Preterm infant  ;  Bronchopulmonary dysplasia  ;  Energy expenditure  ;  Growth  ;  Corticosteroids
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Growth failure is a well-known problem in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). We studied BPD infants' total daily energy expenditure (Ee), nutritional balance, and growth in relation to their past and current clinical status. Applying the doubly labelled water technique, Ee was measured in nine preterm infants with BPD receiving supplemental oxygen (postnatal age 61 ± 13 days) and nine matched controls (36 ± 21 days) during a 6-day period. Energy and protein balance, past and present respiratory status, and growth were assessed as well. The results show that Ee was higher in the BPD infants compared to controls (73 ± 9 vs 63 ± 8 kcal/kg/day, P 〈 0.05), but their faecal energy loss was lower (P 〈 0.01). Weight gain, energy intake, energy cost of growth, protein retention, and physical activity were not different. The respiratory frequency (RR) in the BPD infants was elevated in comparison with controls (P 〈 0.01). Within the BPD group, RR was positively correlated with energy expenditure (regression equation: Ee [kcal/kg/day] = 26.3 + 0.71*RR [min−1]; r 2 = 0.82, P 〈 0.001), and was the single most significant determinant of Ee. Conclusion Total energy expenditure in BPD infants is elevated and is strongly associated with their respiratory status. These findings could be of practical value for the nutritional management in infants with severe BPD.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Key words Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia ; Neurophysiology ; CNS late effects ; Quality of life
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Monitoring of therapy-related late effects after acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) therapy in childhood has become an increasingly important field in posttherapeutic patient surveillance. The usefulness of neurophysiological investigations (e.g. EEG, evoked potentials (EP)) as part of these attempts is controversial. The present report focuses on this problem and the question whether and to what extent routinely performed EEG recordings and visual evoked potentials (VEP) were correlated with further measures of CNS integrity. EEGs and VEPs were recorded in 163 asymptomatic long-term survivors of ALL in childhood during a large retrospective multicentre study evaluating CNS late sequelae following antileukaemic therapy. Fifty-two ALL long-term survivors (4.5–10.6 years after end of therapy, median: 8.8 years), who had been treated according to BFM-81 SR-A (n=30) or SR-B (n=22) were selected for this analysis focusing on therapy-related CNS late effects. Therapy protocols differed with regard to the mode for CNS prophylaxis: SR-A, cranial irradiation with intrathecal methotrexate; SR-B, intrathecal and iv methotrexate. Neurophysiological findings were correlated with illness- and treatment-related parameters, as well as with data on the morphological, neurological and psychological status of the CNS. At the time of follow-up neurophysiological measures were abnormal in 28/52 cases (53.8%). Neither illness- nor therapy-specific differences in CNS prophylaxis showed any relationship to EEG/VEP outcome any relationship to EEG/VEP outcome in this reduced group of the whole study population. Children with EEG/VEP abnormalities showed a significantly higher incidence of structural CNS disturbances compared to those with inconspicuous neurophysiological recordings (60.9% vs 31.8%). However, in this special subject group there was no specific neurophysiological finding for a specific morphological substrate, neurological or psychological deficiency and vice versa. Conclusion Routinely performed EEG/VEP investi gations are not very helpful measures to predict the presence or degree of behavioural deficiencies, neuro‐logical disturbances, or morphological CNS abnor‐malities. Patients who received cranial irradiation or systemic methotrexate applications showed the same incidence of neurophysiological disturbances without evidence for specific neurotoxic correlates.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words Vision ; Locomotion ; Optic Flow Adaptation ; Human
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The effect of an optic flow pattern on human locomotion was studied in subjects walking on a self-driven treadmill. During walking an optic flow pattern was presented, which gave subjects the illusion of walking in a tunnel. Visual stimulation was achieved by a closed-loop system in which optic flow and treadmill velocity were automatically adjusted to the intended walking velocity (WV). Subjects were instructed to keep their WV constant. The presented optic flow velocity was sinusoidally varied relative to the WV with a cycle period of 2 min. The independent variable was the relative optic flow (rOF), ranging from −1, i.e., forward flow of equal velocity as the WV, and 3, i.e., backward flow 3 times faster than WV. All subjects were affected by rOF in a similar way. The results showed, firstly, an increase in stride-cycle variability that suggests a larger instability of the walking pattern than in treadmill walking without optic flow; and, secondly, a significant modulating effect of rOF on the self-chosen WV. Backward flow resulted in a decrease, whereas forward flow induced an increase of WV. Within the analyzed range, a linear relationship was found between rOF and WV. Thirdly, WV-related modulations in stride length (SL) and stride frequency (SF) were different from normal walking: whereas in the latter a change in WV is characterized by a stable linear relationship between SL and SF (i.e., an approximately constant SL to SF ratio), optic flow-induced changes in WV are closely related to a modulation of SL (i.e., a change of SL-SF ratio). Fourthly, this effect of rOF diminished by about 45% over the entire walking distance of 800 m. The results suggest that the adjustment of WV is the result of a summation of visual and leg-proprioceptive velocity informations. Visual information about ego-motion leads to an unintentional modulation of WV by affecting specifically the relationship between SL and SF. It is hypothesized that the space-related parameter (SL) is influenced by visually perceived motion information, whereas the temporal parameter (SF) remains stable. The adaptation over the entire walking distance suggests that a shift from visual to leg-proprioceptive control takes place.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1433-0385
    Keywords: Key words: Trigger thumb ; Child ; Congenital hand deformity. ; Schlüsselwörter: Tendovaginitis stenosans ; Daumen ; Kleinkind ; angeborene Handfehlbildung.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung. Die eigene Behandlungsmethode bei Pollex flexus congenitus wird vorgestellt. Leitsymptome sind die fixierte Beugefehlstellung, eine (schmerzhafte) Bewegungseinschränkung (mit Klick-Phänomen) oder eine persistierende Streckfehlstellung. Obwohl es sich um ein einfaches Krankheitsbild handelt, ist eine sorgfältige Diagnostik mit Ausschluß seltener Ursachen, welche eine Tendovaginitis stenosans imitieren können, notwendig, da gerade diese Fälle zu schwerwiegenden Komplikationen führen können. 26 Patienten mit persistierenden Beschwerden wurde operativ das A1-Ringband des Daumens gespalten. Eine freie aktive und passive Gelenkbeweglichkeit im Seitenvergleich trat bei 92,7 % der Patienten auf, wobei aufgrund einer inkompletten Ringbandspaltung bei 2 Patienten eine erneute Operation durchgeführt wurde. Bei adäquater Diagnostik, frühzeitiger Indikationsstellung und exakter Operationstechnik sollten heutzutage ästhetische und funktionelle Beeinträchtigungen der Hand aufgrund einer Tendovaginitis stenosans beim Kind nicht mehr auftreten.
    Notes: Summary. Our personal treatment concept for trigger thumb in children is presented. The guiding symptoms are fixed flexion deformity, (painful) restriction of motion (with a click phenomenon) or persistent extension deformity. Although it is a simple pathology, careful diagnosis is mandatory to rule out other reasons with the same symptoms as trigger thumb, as some of these will lead to severe aesthetic and functional impairment. In 26 patients with persistent symptoms, the A1 ring ligament of the thumb was cut. Free active and passive joint motion was comparable to the opposite side in 92.7 % of patients. In 2 cases a secondary operation was necessary because of incomplete A1 ring ligament release. If it is diagnosed and operated on early with a careful operative technique, nowadays no aesthetic or functional impairment should occur in children because of trigger thumb.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1433-0385
    Keywords: Key words: Retroperitoneum ; Imaging ; Indication for operation. ; Schlüsselwörter: Retroperitoneum ; Bildgebung ; Indikation zur Operation.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung. Die Notwendigkeit einer chirurgischen Intervention bei retroperitonealen Tumoren sollte nicht von der Darstellung einer Raumforderung auf bildgebenden Verfahren abhängig gemacht werden, da sich die histologische Differenzierung nur nach Resektion, die prinzipiell immer anzustreben ist, oder einer Probeexcision klären läßt. Durch eine sinnvoll eingesetzte radiologische Diagnostik läßt sich präoperativ eine Größenbestimmung, Lokalisation und die Abgrenzbarkeit zu umgebenden Strukturen darstellen und der Chirurg erhält so die notwendigen Informationen für die Operationsplanung sowie der zu erwartenden Morbidität und Letalität.
    Notes: Summary. The indication for surgical treatment of tumors of the retroperitoneum should not depend on findings of radiological examinations, because all radiographic procedures lack tissue specificity. Instead, it can only be determined histologically after an open biopsy or resection of the tumor, which should always be attempted. With the help of appropriate radiological examinations, a retroperitoneal mass will not only be detected, but the relationship to the adjacent anatomical structures will also be delineated. Therefore, valid information for planning the operation and estimating the morbidity and mortality can be provided for the surgeon.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Der Gynäkologe 30 (1997), S. 577-580 
    ISSN: 1433-0393
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Vorgestellt wird der Fall einer 20 jährigen 1-Gravida-0-Para, die in der 39 + 6 SSW in der Universitäts-Frauenklinik stationär aufgenommen wurde und 1 Tag später am errechneten Termin von einem reifen lebensfrischen Knaben entbunden wurde. Unter der Geburt wurden ab einer Muttermundsweite von 4 cm rezidivierende, pathologische CTG-Muster registriert. Das fetale Wohlergehen konnte durch insgesamt 6 Mikroblutuntersuchungen sichergestellt werden. Wie das folgende Fallbeispiel verdeutlichen soll, kann die konsequente, kombinierte Intensivüberwachung des Feten sub partu dazu beitragen, die Zahl an geburtsbeendigenden operativen Eingriffen zu senken.
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