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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The stratum corneum (SC) has long been considered as a sort of inert membrane destined to be shed at the surface of the epidermis. During the last two decades, however, several lines of evidence have been reported, suggesting that active physical and chemical changes take place in the horny layer despite the absence of intracytoplasmic organelles. In particular, processing of filaggrin, replacement of the plasma membrane by a ceramide envelope and constant, progressive modification of extracellular lipid multilayers have been put forward. Recently, attention has focused on the intercellular junctions, which may be involved in the regulation of SC desquamation. Corneodesmosin, a newly discovered protein of SC desmosomes (corneodesmosomes), is synthesized at the latest stages of keratinocyte differentiation and persists between the horny cells until desquamation occurs. In the present study, we performed immunohistochemical and immuno-ultrastructural investigations on corneodesmosin expression in various skin lesions characterized by abnormal production and/or retention of the horny layer. Our results suggest that corneodesmosin expression is independent from profilaggrin synthesis. We found corneodesmosin in almost all morphologically recognizable corneodesmosomal structures and specifically those which persisted up to the SC surface. Hyperkeratotic lesions which are characterized by an increased number of junctions showed intense immunoreactivity with anticorneodesmosin antibody. A complete absence of corneodesmosin was not observed in any disease. This finding, together with our previous biochemical studies, suggests that corneodesmosin may exert a protective function against proteolytic degradation of corneodesmosomes both in normal skin and in the pathological horny layer.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key words Transcription ; TFIIH ; MAT1 ; RING finger protein ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Kin28/Ccl1, a cyclin-dependent kinase, is essential for the in vivo phosphorylation of the C-terminal domain of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In a search for mutations co-lethal with a thermosensitive kin28 mutation, we have identified genes whose products interact functionally with Kin28. In the present work, we have studied a new complementation group of synthetic lethal mutations. The corresponding gene, RIG2, encodes a predicted RING finger protein. Rig2 is likely to be a homolog of MAT1 of higher eukaryotes which forms a ternary complex with MO15(cdk7) and cyclin H. Our genetic data suggest that Rig2 is a component of transcription factor TFIIH. Transcription activity in a rig2-ts mutant is impeded at restrictive temperature. However, none of the rig2-ts mutants obtained was UV sensitive, suggesting that Rig2 is dispensable for nucleotide excision repair.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Review of Scientific Instruments 68 (1997), S. 3728-3737 
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: In this article we describe the design and the operation of an original, high transmission, electrostatic "double toroidal" electron energy analyzer. The double toroidal analyzer allows the high resolution and high luminosity simultaneous measurement of the kinetic energy, and angular distribution of electrons, using a two-dimensional position sensitive detector. The exact shape of the electrodes is deduced from both analytical and numerical electron trajectory calculations. The electron detector is based on a charge analysis and optimized to attain a 100 kHz counting rate. The actual performances of the analyzer are illustrated with spectra obtained after resonant Auger decay of N2O excited around the nitrogen K shell (hν=401 eV), and of Kr after 3d5/2→5p excitation at hν=91.2 eV. A "étendue" of 15% of the pass energy, as well as a resolving power (Ep/δE) of 100were measured. © 1997 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Figure 1 Targeted disruption of the Arnt gene, a, The Arnt targeting construct. Top, a partial restriction-endonuclease map of the murine Arnt gene; middle, the structure of the Arnt targeting construct pPNT Arnt containing the HSV-tk and neomycin(neo)-resistance genes, both underthe control of the ...
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Hypothalamic magnocellular neurons and their afferent inputs provide a model system in which to study the regulation of inducible transcription factors in the brain in vivo. Osmotic stimulation of rats produced by graded infusions of saline at different tonicities was found to lead to the induction of c-fos, nur77 and egr1 mRNAs in magnocellular neurons, as well as in putative afferent neurons, including those in structures of the forebrain (subfornical organ, median preoptic nucleus and organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis). The results presented suggest that stronger levels of osmotic stimulation recruit additional afferents from the forebrain and brainstem that can act on magnocellular neurons via alternative receptors. A single systemic injection of the peptide cholecystokinin produced robust induction of c-fos and nur77 mRNAs in afferent neurons of the brainstem nucleus tractus solitarii and in magnocellular neurons. Despite the fact that these two neuronal populations are clearly electrically active, egr1 was not induced by this stimulus, providing examples of cell- and stimulus-specificity of its expression. This study re-emphasizes that the induction of transcription factors is largely dependent on the nature of the afferent input and does not correlate necessarily to the electrical activity of the neuron.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1572-9710
    Keywords: fish resources ; preference flexibility ; ornamental fish exploitation ; Lake Malawi.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Most of Malawi's popular food-fish species are in decline. The fishers attribute this decline to overfishing, changes in climate, inadequate fishing technology and supernatural powers. Sedimentation of the lake and rivers due to poor agricultural practices, which can also be implicated in the demise of Malawi's fisheries, was not recognized by the fishers. This study tested and confirmed that the fishers would readily switch to exploiting ornamental fish (Mbuna) for subsistence and cash if the more favoured food-fish species continued to dwindle. However, as most of the Mbuna species are localized to specific rocky habitats and are endemic to certain parts of the lake, they may be vulnerable to overfishing. To safeguard Lake Malawi's rich fish species diversity: (i) alternative economic opportunities for the lakeshore people should be identified, evaluated and promoted to alleviate the fishing pressure, (ii) the Department of Fisheries should collaborate with local fishermen in promoting sustainable fish utilization, e.g., through public campaigns aimed at sensitizing fishermen on the status of the fisheries and the vulnerability of some fish communities to overfishing and environmental degradation, and (iii) the degree of Mbuna exploitation, now that the popular food fishes are in decline, should be monitored and, where necessary, regulated to promote sustainability.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1572-9540
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract First direct mass measurements on rare earth isotopes around 146Gd have been performed with the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN. More than 40 isotopes of the elements Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Dy and Ho have been measured with an accuracy of typically 1 × 10-7. In the case of 141Sm isomeric and ground state (ΔE = 175 keV) were resolved. Since isobaric contaminations are present in the ISOLDE beam, these measurements on rare earth isotopes became only possible after the installation of a new cooler trap which acts an isobar separator.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Key words Evergreen ; Light and temperature response ; Physiology ; Summergreen ; Understory herbs
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Seasonal differences in photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of four herbaceous perennials from beneath a deciduous canopy was assessed at two light levels (60 and 400 μmol m−2 s−1 photosynthetic photon flux density, PPFD) and two leaf temperatures (7 and 20°C). Leaves of an evergreen, Pyrola asarifolia Michx., a wintergreen, Cornus canadensis L., and two summergreen species, Rubus pubescens Raf. and Aralia nudicaulis L., were collected at four times during the growing season. In addition, midsummer light response curves were obtained for one summergreen (A. nudicaulis) and one evergreen species (P. asarifolia) at both 7 and 20°C. Gas exchange measurements were made in the laboratory under controlled environmental conditions. For leaves collected in April, when insolation was high due to the leafless overstory, only P. asarifolia had green leaves, and there was no effect of temperature or light on this species' photosynthesis. P. asarifolia's net assimilation rate (NA) in April was about 30% of it's maximum in late summer. In early summer (June), A. nudicaulis and R. pubescens had higher NA at the higher temperature; at this time, these summergreen species also reached their maximum NA. Midsummer photosynthetic light response curves showed that the light-saturation point was higher and more responsive to leaf temperature in the summergreen A. nudicaulis than in the evergreen P. asarifolia. The summergreen species appear to have a photosystem which performs at high rates during early- and mid-summer, as well as a taller stature which allows them to intercept more light. The photosynthetic system of the ever/wintergreen species is adapted to the low ground-level light conditions in the summer and there does not appear to be an adjustment to take further advantage of the higher light in the spring and fall period. The adaptation of the evergreen and wintergreen understory species is tolerance to low temperatures, enabling them to photosynthesize into the fall till the first continuous frosts occur in the understory and also permitting the evergreen species to begin photosynthesis early in the spring.
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