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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Keywords: PARP ; interference with PARP activity ; DNA damage and repair ; DNA recombination ; DNA replication and growth arrest
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We have studied the clonogenic survival response to X-rays and MNNG of V79 Chinese hamster cells and two derivative cell lines, ADPRT54 and ADPRT351, deficient in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activity. Under conditions of exponential growth, both PARP-deficient cell lines are hypersensitive to X-rays and MNNG compared to their parental V79 cells. In contrast, under growth-arrested, confluent conditions, V79 and PARP-deficient cells become similarly sensitive to X-rays and MNNG suggesting that PARP may be involved in the repair of X-ray or MNNG-induced DNA damage in logarithmically growing cells but not in growth-arrested confluent cells. This suggestion, however, creates a dilemma as to how PARP can be involved in DNA repair in only selected growth phases while it is functionally active in all growth phases. To explain these paradoxical results and resolve this dilemma we propose a hypothesis based on the consistent observation that inhibition of PARP results in a significant increase in sister chromatid exchange (SCEs). Thus, we propose that PARP is a guardian of the genome that protects against DNA recombination. We have extended this theme to provide an explanation for our results and the studies done by many others.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Loci for two inherited liver diseases, benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis (BRIC) and progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 1 (PFIC1), have previously been mapped to 18q21 by a search for shared haplotypes in patients in two isolated populations. This paper describes the use of further haplotype evaluation with a larger sample of patients for both disorders, drawn from several different populations. Our assessment places both loci in the same interval of less than 1 cM and has led to the discovery of the PFIC1/BRIC gene, FIC1; this discovery permits retrospective examination of the general utility of haplotype evaluation and highlights possible caveats regarding this method of genetic mapping.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Key words Body composition ; Fat free mass ; Exercise ; Cystic fibrosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Monitoring fat free mass (FFM), an indicator of nutritional status and a predictor of exercise performance in children, is particularly important in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). We assessed validity of the skinfold method for measuring FFM, and its changes with exercise training, in children with CF. A total of 14 children with moderately severe symptoms of CF (age 10–18 years) were followed longitudinally and measured three times, before (at 0 and 6 months) and after exercise training (at 12 months). Separately, single measurements were conducted in 12 children with mild symptoms of CF and in 13 healthy controls. FFM was calculated from four skinfold measurements, and compared with estimations from total body water measured with deuterium dilution. The FFM calculated from skinfolds was 1.7% (P 〈 0.05) and 3.3% (P 〈 0.005) higher than that estimated with deuterium oxide dilution in patients with CF and controls, respectively. Limits of agreement were similar in patients with moderate and mild symptoms and in controls. The measurements in patients with moderate symptoms showed similar bias and limits of agreement at 6 and 12 months as compared to 0 months. Changes in FFM measured with both methods were significantly correlated before exercise (r = 0.82, P 〈 0.0005), and after exercise training (r = 0.60, P 〈 0.05). Conclusion In children with cystic fibrosis, skinfold measurements are applicable to monitor fat free mass irrespective of clinical severity of the disease, and repeated measurements at intervals of 6 months are applicable to monitor changes in fat free mass during exercise training.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Key words: Ankle ; Ankle sprain ; Lateral collateral ligaments ; MRI
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of MRI to display injuries of the lateral collateral ligamentous complex in patients with an acute ankle distorsion trauma. The MR examinations of 36 patients with ankle pain after ankle distorsion were evaluated retrospectively without knowledge of clinical history, outcome and/or operative findings. The examinations were performed on a 1.5-T whole-body imager using a flexible surface coil. The signs for ligamentous abnormality were as follows: complete or partial discontinuity, increased signal within, and irregularity and waviness of the ligament. The results were compared with operative findings in 18 patients with subsequent surgical repair. Eighteen patients with conservative therapy had a follow-up MR examination after 3 months. There was 1 sprain, 3 partial and 32 complete tears of the anterior talofibular ligament, and 5 sprains, 5 partial, and 7 complete tears of the calcaneofibular ligament. There were no lesions of the posterior talofibular ligament. Compared with surgery, MRI demonstrated in 18 of 18 cases the exact extent of anterior talofibular ligament injuries and underestimated the extent in 2 of 8 cases of calcaneofibular ligament injury. In patients with follow-up MRI after conservative therapy, a thickened band-like structure was found along the course of the injured ligament in 17 of 18 cases. The absence of ligament repair after conservative treatment was confirmed during operative revision in one case. The MRI technique allows for grading of the extent of injury of the lateral collateral ligamentous complex after acute ankle strain. It seems to be suitable for monitoring the healing process after conservative-functional treatment of ligament tears.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words Human gait ; Transcranial magnetic stimulation ; Motor cortex ; Leg flexor/extensor muscle ; Corticospinal input ; Visual control
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The aim of this study was to investigate visuomotor control during human gait. It was assumed that visual input should modulate transcranially evoked motor potentials (EMPs) during walking. The effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in a visually guided precision stepping task was compared with that during normal gait. EMPs were studied in tibialis anterior (TA), gastrocnemius (GM), and abductor digiti minimi (AD) muscles during treadmill walking. In both stepping tasks, a facilitation of EMPs was observed prior to activation of the respective leg muscle. EMP facilitation proved to be modulated throughout the stride cycle when normalising EMP with respect to the underlying electromyogram (EMG). Facilitation was strongest in TA prior to the swing phase. Significant differences of EMP facilitation between the visual and control tasks were present. In the visual task, maximal facilitation of TA EMPs prior to and during the swing phase was decreased compared to the control task. Conversely, there was increased facilitation of GM EMPs during swing phase of the visual task, prior to the heel strike and prior to the plantarflexion, which was the moment when the target was hit. Thus, the effect of visual input upon EMPs in TA and GM was differential and reciprocal according to the respective functional state. The results support the hypothesis of a conditioning effect of visual or, alternatively volitional, drive on EMPs during stepping.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words Tendon reflexes ; Biceps femoris ; Gait ; Ia afferents ; Human
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  During gait it is generally accepted that there is a reduction in amplitude of H-reflexes as compared to standing. For short-latency stretch reflexes, however, it is less clear whether a similar reduction in reflex gain is present during locomotion. Stretches of constant amplitude are hard to produce under these circumstances and for this reason some previous studies on the biceps femoris (BF) have used ”reduced gait” in which the stimulated leg is stepping on the spot while the contralateral leg is walking on a treadmill. With this method it was possible to show that BF tendon jerk reflexes are larger at end swing and therefore are likely to contribute to the EMG burst normally occurring in that part of the step cycle when the BF is rapidly stretched. In the present study two questions were addressed: first, whether the reflex is different in size during gait compared to standing and, second, whether it is modulated in size during the gait cycle not only during reduced but also during normal gait. It was found that during both types of gait there was a general reflex depression with regard to the respective control values obtained during standing at similar EMG activity levels. In previous studies on soleus and quadriceps, discrepancies between EMG activity and reflex amplitude have been ascribed to changes in presynaptic inhibition of Ia terminals mediating the afferent volley of the reflex. Based on the data presented, this may also be true for the BF. In both normal and reduced gait the reflex was similarly modulated in size, showing a maximum at the end of swing. This similarity implies that reduced gait may be useful as an acceptable alternative for normal gait in studies on phase-dependent reflex modulation during locomotion.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Der Chirurg 70 (1999), S. 726-740 
    ISSN: 1433-0385
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Beckennahe Dekubitalulzera treten zum überwiegenden Teil bei zwei Risikogruppen auf, querschnittsgelähmte und geriatrische Patienten. Ursächlich sind bei allen betroffenen Patienten eine verminderte Schmerzempfindung und/oder Spontanbeweglichkeit. Zur Häufigkeit im jeweiligen Krankengut sind in der Literatur unterschiedliche Angaben zu finden. Festzustellen ist jedoch, daß von diesem Erkrankungsbild mit seiner schlechten Spontanheilung eine hohe Morbidität ausgeht, welche sowohl die individuelle Hospitalisation signifikant verlängert als auch eine Rehabilitation erschwert oder unmöglich macht. Die hierdurch entstehenden Kosten für das Gesundheitssystem sind erheblich und können für die Bundesrepublik auf etwa 500 Millionen Euro pro Jahr geschätzt werden. Der Prophylaxe von Dekubitalulzera kommt daher eine harausragende Bedeutung bei der ärztlichen Behandlung von bettlägerigen Patienten zu und darf nicht allein dem Pflegepersonal überlassen werden. Ist es zum Auftreten eines konservativ nicht zur Abheilung zu bringenden Dekubitalulkus gekommen, stellt der plastisch-chirurgische Wundverschluß den zentralen Teil einer umfangreichen Rehabilitation dar. Trotz optimal durchgeführter plastischer Deckung sind Rezidive insbesondere bei den o. g. Risikogruppen häufig, so daß nicht genug auf die Bedeutung der konservativ-prophylaktischen Maßnahmen hingewiesen werden kann.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1433-0415
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Neurologische Störungen können lange Zeit vor Entdeckung eines Tumorleidens auftreten. Auch Paraproteinämien und Lymphome treten gehäuft gleichzeitig mit der Degeneration unterer Neurone auf. Diese Kasuistik zeigt einen entsprechenden Verlauf.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary.  Twenty-seven of 29 strains of viruses in the bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) subgroup of legume-infecting potyviruses reacted strongly with one or more of the monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) which are known to be specific for epitopes located along the 50 amino acids which constitute the N-terminal end of the viral coat protein. Approximately one half of the virus strains reacted with the N-terminal epitope specific (NTES) MAb 4G12 which is specific for epitope E/B4, while the other half reacted with NTES MAbs 4 A1 or 4F9 which are specific for epitope E/B3. All but two strains contained at least one of these epitopes while no strain contained both. Competitive assays using five sequential, non-overlapping, synthetic, 10mer peptides indicated that the amino acids critical for epitope E/B3 reaction were located at positions 5, 7, and 10 from the N-terminal end of the coat protein. By deduction we postulate that the amino acids critical for epitope E/B4 are located at positions 10, 16, and 17. Because epitope E/B3 requires isoleucine at position 10 for expression whereas epitope E/B4 requires valine to be expressed, no one strain can express both epitopes. Two viruses in our tests (azuki mosaic and Dendrobium mosaic viruses) had deletions in this portion of their sequence explaining their failure to react MAbs specific for either epitope. The critical amino acids for a third epitope, E/B3A, were located at positions 16 and 17. We found no correlation between any of the three N-terminal epitopes defined in this study and the presence or absence of any biological property that we could accurately measure: i.e., symptomatology, host range, or pathotype. However, when coat protein sequences were aligned according to epitope type E/B3 or E/B4, we found that sequences within groups had high levels of identity while between group identities were low. We also found that sequences in the 3′-end non-coding region exhibited similar relationships within and between epitope groups. Two strains of BCMV (NL-4 and RU-1) were found to possess coat protein sequences typical of epitope E/B4 but 3′-NCR sequences typical of epitope E/B3. These data suggest that both strains may be the result of natural recombinants between the two epitope groups.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Der Gynäkologe 32 (1999), S. 55-59 
    ISSN: 1433-0393
    Keywords: Key words Tender loving care • Perinatal brain damage • Asphyxia • Intrauterine infection • Preberm delivery ; Schüsselwörter Intensivierte psychosoziale Betreuung • Perinataler Hirnschaden • Asphyxie • Intrauterine Infektion • Frühgeburtlichkeit
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Durch den konsequenten Einsatz einer sanften und sicheren Geburtsleitung mit dem Ziel, fetale Asphyxie während der Geburt zu vermeiden, Frühgeburtsbestrebungen entgegenzutreten und insbesondere bei Frühgeborenen eine aufsteigende genitale Infektion zu verhindern, gelingt es, Kinder während und nach der Geburt vor Hirnschäden zu bewahren. Dabei sollten jedoch diagnostische wie therapeutische Verfahren risikoadaptiert eingesetzt werden, um in Zusammenarbeit mit den betroffenen Frauen ein vernünftiges Gleichgewicht zwischen Selbstbestimmung der Gebärenden und ausreichender Sicherheit für das Kind zu gewährleisten.
    Notes: Summary Delivering women gently and safely by avoiding perinatal asphyxia, preterm delivery and ascending intrauterine infection may help to protect babies from cerebral damage during and after birth. The self-determination of women should not be restricted by unnecessary diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. In contrast, obstetricians should cooperate with women to assure an appropriate balance between personal freedom of the mother and safety for the baby during delivery.
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