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  • 2000-2004  (6)
  • 1915-1919
  • 2002  (2)
  • 2001  (4)
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  • 2000-2004  (6)
  • 1915-1919
Year
  • 1
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Glutamate release in ischaemia triggers neuronal death. The major glial glutamate transporter, GLT-1, might protect against glutamate-evoked death by removing extracellular glutamate, or contribute to death by reversing and releasing glutamate. Previous studies of the role of GLT-1 in ischaemia have often used the GLT-1 blocker dihydrokainate at concentrations that affect transporters other than GLT-1 and which affect kainate, N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors. In hippocampal slices from postnatal day 14 mice lacking GLT-1, the current response of area CA1 pyramidal cells to superfused AMPA and NMDA (which are not taken up) was unaffected, whereas the response to 100 µm glutamate was more than doubled relative to that in wild-type littermates, a finding consistent with a decrease in glutamate uptake. In response to a few minutes of simulated ischaemia, pyramidal cells in wild-type mice showed a large and sudden inward glutamate-evoked current [the anoxic depolarization (AD) current], which declined to a less inward plateau. In mice lacking GLT-1, the time to the occurrence of the AD current, its amplitude, the size of the subsequent plateau current and the block of the plateau current by glutamate receptor blockers were all indistinguishable from those in wild-type mice. We conclude that GLT-1 does not contribute significantly to glutamate release or glutamate removal from the extracellular space in early simulated ischaemia. These data are consistent with glutamate release being by reversal of neuronal transporters, and with uptake into glia being compromised by the ischaemia-evoked fall in the level of ATP needed to convert glutamate into glutamine.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1600-0765
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: To explore aspects of cellular immune responses in the pathogenesis of periodontitis we analyzed phenotype and function of peripheral T cells. Two groups of subjects participated: one group consisted of 10 highly susceptible patients with severe periodontitis (mean age 29 years) and a control group consisted of 10 age, gender and race matched subjects with gingivitis. From all subjects peripheral blood was collected. The results showed that the numbers of CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells as well as the CD4/CD8 ratio, and the proliferative capacity of T cells, were not different between the two groups of subjects. Also, proportions of naive and memory T cells for both the CD4+ and CD8+ subpopulations were not different. Functional heterogeneity within the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell compartments was determined by intracellular analysis of interferon-γ(IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) production. On the basis of these latter analyses among CD4+ and CD8+ cells, T helper (Th) 1 or Th2 function and T cytotoxic (Tc) 1 or Tc2 function, respectively, could be deduced. No significant differences in proportions of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells positive for intracellular IFN-γ or IL-4 were observed between periodontitis patients and gingivitis controls; however a higher level of intracellular IL-4 in CD8+ T cells was seen in periodontitis patients. This might indicate that there is a shift towards a Tc2 function within the CD8+ T cell subpopulation. The current explorative study suggests that further research into the role of CD8+T cells in the pathogenesis of periodontitis is warranted.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 89 (2001), S. 5774-5778 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Enhancement γ of the electrical field at the end of a tip relative to the incident field in a focused radiation beam is calculated by the finite-element time-domain (FETD) method. First, the reliability of the FETD method is established by calculating the electric field on simple structures like thin cylinders, spheres, and ellipsoids, and comparing the results with analytical solutions. The calculations on these test structures also reveal that phase retardation effects substantially modify γ when the size of the structure is larger than approximately λ/4, λ being the radiation wavelength. For plasmon resonance, in particular, phase retardation severely reduces the resonance and the expected field enhancement for a gold tip. The small value of γ=4 calculated by FETD is about an order of magnitude smaller than the value found in recent published work. Resonance effects can be recovered for special tips, which have a discontinuity or a different material composition at the end of the tip. Some tuning of the discontinuity dimension is needed to maximize the resonance. Under optimal conditions for plasmon resonance, an enhancement in the electric field of about 50 is calculated at the end of a small gold protrusion mounted on a wider silicon or glass tip. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 81 (2002), S. 1267-1269 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A method for altering the local direction and angular dispersion of anisotropy in soft magnetic films using energetic ion irradiation is demonstrated. NiFe films 50 Å thick were irradiated with 200 keV Ar+ ions to doses between 1013 and 1016 ions/cm2, while a saturating magnetic field was applied to the samples. This annealing field defined the new anisotropy direction of the irradiated areas, and the irradiation process also led to changes in the angular dispersion of anisotropy orientation, as measured by angle-dependent remanence of magnetization. By appropriate masking of films, this technique has been used to pattern samples with small "anisotropy domains." © 2002 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    College Park, Md. : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    The Journal of Chemical Physics 115 (2001), S. 1028-1040 
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Single molecule confocal microscopy is used to investigate the detailed kinetics of fluorescence intermittency in colloidal II–VI (CdSe) semiconductor quantum dots. Two distinct modes of behavior are observed corresponding to (i) sustained "on" episodes (τon) of rapid laser absorption/fluorescence cycling, followed by (ii) sustained "off" episodes (τoff) where essentially no light is emitted despite continuous laser excitation. Both on-time and off-time probability densities follow an inverse power law, P(τon/off)∝1/τon/offm, over more than seven decades in probability density and five decades in time. Such inverse power law behavior is an unambiguous signature of highly distributed kinetics with rates varying over 105-fold, in contrast with models for switching between "on" and "off" configurations of the system via single rate constant processes. The unprecedented dynamic range of the current data permits several kinetic models of fluorescence intermittency to be evaluated at the single molecule level and indicate the importance of fluctuations in the quantum dot environment. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    College Park, Md. : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    The Journal of Chemical Physics 114 (2001), S. 8596-8609 
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The dramatic modifications of molecular fluorescence in the proximity of a sharp nanoscopic probe is investigated by an apertureless or antenna-based near-field scanning optical microscope, which exploits the interactions between a fluorescent sample and a laser illuminated Si atomic force microscope probe. Specifically, luminescence is monitored from evanescently excited, dye-doped polystyrene nanospheres (RS=20–80 nm) on a fused silica prism surface as a function of probe-sample geometry. The incident laser field is enhanced in the near-field of the probe tip, resulting in images with high sensitivity (σmin(approximate)2 Å2 in a 1 Hz detection bandwidth) and strongly subdiffraction-limited spatial resolution. At probe-sample distances greater than (approximate)λ/2, the images are dominated by far-field interference between (i) direct fluorescence from the molecular sample and (ii) indirect fluorescence from image dipoles induced in the atomic force microscope probe. Near-field "shadowing" of the molecular fluorescence by the probe also occurs and is studied as a function of probe-sample-detector geometry. Finally, effects of probe-sample proximity on the fluorescence emission spectrum are investigated. In summary, the data elucidate several novel near- and far-field molecular fluorescence enhancement effects relevant to further development of molecular and nanostructural spectroscopic methods with spatial resolution well below the diffraction limit. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
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