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  • 2005-2009  (2)
  • 2005  (2)
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  • 2005-2009  (2)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1471-0528
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Objective  To determine the association between congenital toxoplasmosis and preterm birth, low birthweight and small for gestational age birth.Design  Multicentre prospective cohort study.Setting  Ten European centres offering prenatal screening for toxoplasmosis.Population  Deliveries after 23 weeks of gestation in 386 women with singleton pregnancies who seroconverted to toxoplasma infection before 20 weeks of gestation. Deliveries after 36 weeks in 234 women who seroconverted at 20 weeks or later, and tested positive before 37 weeks.Methods  Comparison of infected and uninfected births, adjusted for parity and country of birth.Main outcome measures  Differences in gestational age at birth, birthweight and birthweight centile.Results  Infected babies were born or delivered earlier than uninfected babies: the mean difference for seroconverters before 20 weeks was −5.4 days (95% CI: −1.4, −9.4), and at 20 weeks or more, −2.6 days (95% CI: −0.5, −4.7). Congenital infection was associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery when seroconversion occurred before 20 weeks (OR 4.71; 95% CI: 2.03, 10.9). No significant differences were detected for birthweight or birthweight centile.Conclusion  Babies with congenital toxoplasmosis were born earlier than uninfected babies but the mechanism leading to shorter length of gestation is unknown. Congenital infection could precipitate early delivery or prompt caesarean section or induction of delivery. We found no evidence for a significant association between congenital toxoplasmosis and reduced birthweight or small for gestational age birth.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The local synaptic connectivity in the superficial gray layer of the superior colliculus (SC) was assessed following retinal ganglion cell axonal regeneration through a peripheral nerve graft into the SC of Lister Hooded rats, using in vitro brain slice techniques. Repair was effected between the ipsilateral eye and SC, following bilateral lesion of optic nerves and ablation of ipsilateral occipital cortex. Deafferentation surgery alone resulted in a complete loss of synaptic potentials of extrinsic origin, once both retinal and cortical inputs were removed. Stimulation of graft insertion sites elicited synaptic responses comprising monosynaptic and network-mediated depolarising events. This activity, together with similar spontaneous bursts of depolarising events and action potential firing, was generated by the activation of non-N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptors. This behaviour may reflect the development of a local recurrent synaptic connectivity following the repair surgery, as both evoked and spontaneous responses developed into large long-lasting bursts of excitatory activity when inhibition mediated by GABA receptors was blocked. These results suggest that the ultrastructural changes in the superficial layers of the SC resulting from deafferentation are reflected functionally at the synaptic level in the target structure even after repair. Such changes are likely to compromise the ability of the target structure to function normally during information processing. Therefore, although axons regenerating along peripheral nerve grafts can make functional synaptic connections, their efficacy in activating the target structure will probably be compromised by local changes in synaptic connectivity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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