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  • 2015-2019  (38)
  • 2010-2014  (28)
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  • 1
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  83. Jahresversammlung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Hals-Nasen-Ohren-Heilkunde, Kopf- und Hals-Chirurgie; 20120516-20120520; Mainz; DOC12hnod337 /20120404/
    Publication Date: 2012-04-05
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: Purpose: Understanding the mechanism of radioresistance could help develop strategies to improve therapeutic response of patients with PDAC. The SMAD4 gene is frequently mutated in pancreatic cancer. In this study, we investigated the role of SMAD4 deficiency in pancreatic cancer cells' response to radiotherapy. Experimental Design: We downregulated SMAD4 expression with SMAD4 siRNA or SMAD4 shRNA and overexpressed SMAD4 in SMAD4 mutant pancreatic cancer cells followed by clonogenic survival assay to evaluate their effects on cell radioresistance. To study the mechanism of radioresistance, the effects of SMAD4 loss on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and autophagy were determined by flow cytometry and immunoblot analysis, respectively. Furthermore, we measured radioresistance by clonogenic survival assay after treatment with autophagy inhibitor (Chloroquine) and ROS inhibitor (N-acetyl- l -cysteine) in SMAD4 -depleted pancreatic cancer cells. Finally, the effects of SMAD4 on radioresistance were also confirmed in an orthotopic tumor model derived from SMAD4 -depleted Panc-1 cells. Results: SMAD4 -depleted pancreatic cancer cells were more resistant to radiotherapy based on clonogenic survival assay. Overexpression of wild-type SMAD4 in SMAD4 -mutant cells rescued their radiosensitivity. Radioresistance mediated by SMAD4 depletion was associated with persistently higher levels of ROS and radiation-induced autophagy. Finally, SMAD4 depletion induced in vivo radioresistance in Panc-1-derived orthotopic tumor model ( P = 0.038). More interestingly, we observed that the protein level of SMAD4 is inversely correlated with autophagy in orthotopic tumor tissue samples. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that defective SMAD4 is responsible for radioresistance in pancreatic cancer through induction of ROS and increased level of radiation-induced autophagy. Clin Cancer Res; 24(13); 3176–85. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-12-15
    Description: Increasing the power conversion efficiency of silicon (Si) photovoltaics is a key enabler for continued reductions in the cost of solar electricity. Here, we describe a two-terminal perovskite/Si tandem design that increases the Si cell’s output in the simplest possible manner: by placing a perovskite cell directly on top of the Si bottom cell. The advantageous omission of a conventional interlayer eliminates both optical losses and processing steps and is enabled by the low contact resistivity attainable between n-type TiO 2 and Si, established here using atomic layer deposition. We fabricated proof-of-concept perovskite/Si tandems on both homojunction and passivating contact heterojunction Si cells to demonstrate the broad applicability of the interlayer-free concept. Stabilized efficiencies of 22.9 and 24.1% were obtained for the homojunction and passivating contact heterojunction tandems, respectively, which could be readily improved by reducing optical losses elsewhere in the device. This work highlights the potential of emerging perovskite photovoltaics to enable low-cost, high-efficiency tandem devices through straightforward integration with commercially relevant Si solar cells.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-06-30
    Description: In a recent study, limited to South Asian Indian subjects ( n = 12), coproporphyrin (CP) I and CPIII demonstrated properties appropriate for an organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B endogenous probe. The current studies were conducted in healthy volunteers of mixed ethnicities, including black, white, and Hispanic subjects, to better understand the utility of these biomarkers in broader populations. After oral administration with 600 mg rifampin, AUC (0–24h) values were 2.8-, 3.7-, and 3.6-fold higher than predose levels for CPI and 2.6-, 3.1-, and 2.4-fold higher for CPIII, for the three populations, respectively. These changes in response to rifampin were consistent with previous results. The sensitivity toward OATP1B inhibition was also investigated by evaluating changes of plasma CP levels in the presence of diltiazem and itraconazole [administered as part of an unrelated drug-drug interaction (DDI) investigation], two compounds that were predicted to have minimal inhibitory effect on OATP1B. Administration of diltiazem and itraconazole did not increase plasma CPI and CPIII concentrations relative to prestudy levels, in agreement with predictions from in vitro parameters. Additionally, the basal CP concentrations in subjects with SLCO1B1 c.521TT genotype were comparable to those with SLCO1B1 c.521TC genotype, similar to studies with probe substrates. However, subjects with SLCO1B1 c.388AG and c.388GG genotypes (i.e., increased OATP1B1 transport activity for certain substrates) had lower concentrations of CPI than those with SLCO1B1 c.388AA. Collectively, these findings provide further evidence supporting the translational value of CPI and CPIII as suitable endogenous clinical probes to gauge OATP1B activity and potential for OATP1B-mediated DDIs.
    Print ISSN: 0090-9556
    Electronic ISSN: 1521-009X
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-10-02
    Description: Purpose: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a clinically aggressive disease with poor prognosis. Conventional chemotherapeutics are generally able to shrink the tumor mass, but often fail to completely eradicate cancer stem–like cells (CSCs) that are responsible for high risk of relapse and frequent metastases. In this study, we examined thermal sensibility of CSCs, developed an approach that enabled concurrent elimination of both the bulk of cancer cells and CSCs, and investigated the underlying mechanism. Experimental Design: We designed a platform consisting of gold nanoparticle-coated porous silicon microparticle (AuPSM) that was also loaded with docetaxel micelles (mDTXs) to enable concurrent killing of the bulk of cancer cells by released mDTX and CSCs by mild hyperthermia upon stimulation of AuPSM with near infrared. In addition, we examined the role of heat shock proteins in sensitizing CSC killing. Finally, we applied mDTX-loaded AuPSM to treat mice with SUM159 and 4T1 orthotopic tumors and evaluated tumor growth and tumor metastasis. Results: MDA-MB-231 and SUM159 TNBC cells treated with mDTX-loaded AuPSM and mild hyperthermia displayed significantly reduced efficiencies in mammosphere formation than those treated with mDTX alone or mild hyperthermia alone. Combination treatment also completely inhibited SUM159 orthotopic tumor growth and 4T1 tumor metastasis. Mechanistically, DTX treatment suppressed expression of heat shock protein 27 in cancer cells including the CSCs, rendering cells sensitive to mild hyperthermia. Conclusions: Our results indicate that chemotherapy sensitizes CSC to mild hyperthermia. We have developed an effective therapeutic approach to eliminate therapy-resistant cells in TNBC. Clin Cancer Res; 24(19); 4900–12. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-11-09
    Description: We describe a general computational approach to designing self-assembling helical filaments from monomeric proteins and use this approach to design proteins that assemble into micrometer-scale filaments with a wide range of geometries in vivo and in vitro. Cryo–electron microscopy structures of six designs are close to the computational design models. The filament building blocks are idealized repeat proteins, and thus the diameter of the filaments can be systematically tuned by varying the number of repeat units. The assembly and disassembly of the filaments can be controlled by engineered anchor and capping units built from monomers lacking one of the interaction surfaces. The ability to generate dynamic, highly ordered structures that span micrometers from protein monomers opens up possibilities for the fabrication of new multiscale metamaterials.
    Keywords: Biochemistry
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-10-19
    Description: Animal toxins that modulate the activity of voltage-gated sodium (Na v ) channels are broadly divided into two categories—pore blockers and gating modifiers. The pore blockers tetrodotoxin (TTX) and saxitoxin (STX) are responsible for puffer fish and shellfish poisoning in humans, respectively. Here, we present structures of the insect Na v channel Na v PaS bound to a gating modifier toxin Dc1a at 2.8 angstrom-resolution and in the presence of TTX or STX at 2.6-Å and 3.2-Å resolution, respectively. Dc1a inserts into the cleft between VSD II and the pore of Na v PaS, making key contacts with both domains. The structures with bound TTX or STX reveal the molecular details for the specific blockade of Na + access to the selectivity filter from the extracellular side by these guanidinium toxins. The structures shed light on structure-based development of Na v channel drugs.
    Keywords: Biochemistry, Online Only
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-10-19
    Description: Voltage-gated sodium (Na v ) channels, which are responsible for action potential generation, are implicated in many human diseases. Despite decades of rigorous characterization, the lack of a structure of any human Na v channel has hampered mechanistic understanding. Here, we report the cryo–electron microscopy structure of the human Na v 1.4-β1 complex at 3.2-Å resolution. Accurate model building was made for the pore domain, the voltage-sensing domains, and the β1 subunit, providing insight into the molecular basis for Na + permeation and kinetic asymmetry of the four repeats. Structural analysis of reported functional residues and disease mutations corroborates an allosteric blocking mechanism for fast inactivation of Na v channels. The structure provides a path toward mechanistic investigation of Na v channels and drug discovery for Na v channelopathies.
    Keywords: Molecular Biology, Online Only
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-05-26
    Description: Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa presents a global medical challenge, and polymyxins are a key last-resort therapeutic option. Unfortunately, polymyxin resistance in P. aeruginosa has been increasingly reported. The present study was designed to define metabolic differences between paired polymyxin-susceptible and -resistant P. aeruginosa strains using untargeted metabolomics and lipidomics analyses. The metabolomes of wild-type P. aeruginosa strain K ([PAK] polymyxin B MIC, 1 mg/liter) and its paired pmrB mutant strains, PAK pmrB6 and PAK pmrB12 (polymyxin B MICs of 16 mg/liter and 64 mg/liter, respectively) were characterized using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and metabolic differences were identified through multivariate and univariate statistics. PAK pmrB6 and PAK pmrB12 , which displayed lipid A modifications with 4-amino-4-deoxy- l -arabinose, showed significant perturbations in amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism, particularly the intermediate metabolites from 4-amino-4-deoxy- l -arabinose synthesis and the methionine salvage cycle pathways. The genomics result showed a premature termination (Y275stop) in speE (encoding spermidine synthase) in PAK pmrB6 , and metabolomics data revealed a decreased intracellular level of spermidine in PAK pmrB6 compared to that in PAK pmrB12 . Our results indicate that spermidine may play an important role in high-level polymyxin resistance in P. aeruginosa . Interestingly, both pmrB mutants had decreased levels of phospholipids, fatty acids, and acyl-coenzyme A compared to those in the wild-type PAK. Moreover, the more resistant PAK pmrB12 mutant exhibited much lower levels of phospholipids than the PAK pmrB6 mutant, suggesting that the decreased phospholipid level was associated with polymyxin resistance. In summary, this study provides novel mechanistic information on polymyxin resistance in P. aeruginosa and highlights its impacts on bacterial metabolism.
    Print ISSN: 0066-4804
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-6596
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-03-30
    Description: Yuanyuan Su, Pengfeng Wang, Hong Shen, Zhaomeng Sun, Chenzhong Xu, Guodong Li, Tanjun Tong, and Jun Chen Senescent cells develop a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). The factors secreted by cells with a SASP have multiple biological functions that are mediated in an autocrine or paracrine manner. However, the status of the protein kinase D1 (PKD1; also known as PRKD1)-mediated classical protein secretory pathway, from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the cell surface, during cellular senescence and its role in the cellular senescence response remain unknown. Here, we show that the activities or quantities of critical components of this pathway, including PKD1, ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) and phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIβ (PI4KIIIβ), at the TGN are increased in senescent cells. Blocking of this pathway decreases IL-6 and IL-8 (hereafter IL-6/IL-8) secretion and results in IL-6/IL-8 accumulation in SASP-competent senescent cells. Inhibition of this pathway reduces IL-6/IL-8 secretion during Ras oncogene-induced senescence (OIS), retards Ras OIS and alleviates its associated ER stress and autophagy. Finally, targeting of this pathway triggers cell death in SASP factor-producing senescent cells due to the intracellular accumulation of massive amounts of IL-6/IL-8. Taken together, our results unveil the hyperactive state of the protein secretory pathway in SASP-competent senescent cells and its critical functions in mediating SASP factor secretion and the Ras OIS process, as well as in determining the fate of senescent cells.
    Print ISSN: 0021-9533
    Electronic ISSN: 1477-9137
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Published by Company of Biologists
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