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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 47 (1982), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The static electrical conductivity measurements on frozen foods such as citrus juice and varieties of cheese showed that both conductivity and unfrozen water content in food products varied directly with temperature. In describing the log σ vs 1/T curve, where σ is the conductivity and T is the absolute temperature, it was found that the linear portion of the curves at low temperature was related to bound water content which was independent of temperature, whereas the non-linear portion in the temperature range between the freezing point and 10 or 35 degrees below the freezing point was related to the unfrozen free water content which was dependent on temperature.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-04-27
    Description: We identified four novel nonpeptidic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitors (PIs), GRL-078, -079, -077, and -058, containing an alkylamine at the C-5 position of P2 tetrahydropyrano-tetrahydrofuran (Tp-THF) and a P2' cyclopropyl (Cp) (or isopropyl)-aminobenzothiazole (Abt) moiety. Their 50% effective concentrations (EC 50 s) were 2.5 to 30 nM against wild-type HIV-1 NL4-3 , 0.3 to 6.7 nM against HIV-2 EHO , and 0.9 to 90 nM against laboratory-selected PI-resistant HIV-1 and clinical HIV-1 variants resistant to multiple FDA-approved PIs (HIV MDR ). GRL-078, -079, -077, and -058 also effectively blocked the replication of HIV-1 variants highly resistant to darunavir (DRV) (HIV DRV r p51 ), with EC 50 s of 38, 62, 61, and 90 nM, respectively, while four FDA-approved PIs examined (amprenavir, atazanavir, lopinavir [LPV], and DRV) had virtually no activity (EC 50 s of 〉1,000 nM) against HIV DRV r p51 . Structurally, GRL-078, -079, and -058 form strong hydrogen bond interactions between Tp-THF modified at C-5 and Asp29/Asp30/Gly48 of wild-type protease, while the P2' Cp-Abt group forms strong hydrogen bonds with Asp30'. The Tp-THF and Cp-Abt moieties also have good nonpolar interactions with protease residues located in the flap region. For selection with LPV and DRV by use of a mixture of 11 HIV MDR strains (HIV 11MIX ), HIV 11MIX became highly resistant to LPV and DRV over 13 to 32 and 32 to 41 weeks, respectively. However, for selection with GRL-079 and GRL-058, HIV 11MIX failed to replicate at 〉0.08 μM and 〉0.2 μM, respectively. Thermal stability results supported the highly favorable anti-HIV-1 potency of GRL-079 as well as other PIs. The present data strongly suggest that the P2 Tp-THF group modified at C-5 and the P2' Abt group contribute to the potent anti-HIV-1 profiles of the four PIs against HIV-1 NL4-3 and a wide spectrum of HIV MDR strains.
    Print ISSN: 0066-4804
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-6596
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-06-05
    Description: Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is involved in regulation of B-cell receptor (BCR) and Fc receptor downstream signal pathways. Syk plays an essential role in production of inflammatory mediators and differentiation in various immune cells and is therefore an attractive target for treating inflammatory conditions, such as autoimmune and allergic diseases. We identified TAS05567 as a highly selective Syk inhibitor and evaluated its therapeutic potential in animal models. In vitro biochemical assays were performed with available kinase assay panels. Inhibitory effects of TAS05567 on immune cells were analyzed by assessing the Syk downstream signaling pathway and production of inflammatory factors. In vivo effects of TAS05567 were evaluated in animal models of autoimmune diseases and antigen-specific IgE transgenic mice. TAS05567 inhibited only 4 of 191 kinases tested but inhibited Syk enzymatic activity with high potency. TAS05567 inhibited BCR-dependent signal transduction in Ramos cells, Fc R-mediated tumor necrosis factor- α production in THP-1 cells, and Fc R-mediated histamine release from RBL-2H3 cells. In rheumatoid arthritis models, TAS05567 suppressed hind-paw swelling in a dose-dependent manner compared with vehicle. Moreover, TAS05667 markedly reduced histopathologic scores in an established rat arthritis model. In a mouse immune thrombocytopenic purpura model, platelet counts were reduced with injection of anti-platelet antibody. TAS05567 prevented the platelet count decrease in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, TAS05567 treatment suppressed IgE-mediated ear swelling in vivo. Collectively, our data indicate TAS05567 is a selective Syk inhibitor and potential therapeutic candidate for treating humoral immune-mediated inflammatory conditions such as autoimmune and allergic diseases.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3565
    Electronic ISSN: 1521-0103
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: A 70-year-old man with a growing liver tumor had undergone subtotal gastrectomy with pancreaticoduodenectomy for gastric cancer (T4b P0 H0 N1, Stage IIIB) 30 months before admission to our hospital. Enhanced computed tomography revealed two hypervascular nodules in segments 4 and 8. After histological diagnosis of small liver metastases from gastric cancer in segment 8, the patient underwent open microwave coagulation therapy (MCT) for the tumor (diameter: 30 mm) in segment 4. MCT was performed by using 1.5-cm and 3-cm monopolar needle electrodes with 22 times of puncture under the condition of 100 W x 60 sec. Liver abscess developed at the MCT site; however, it was decreased with percutaneous drainage. The patient is alive, without tumor recurrence even after 15 years since the MCT. This successful case proves that appropriate MCT is a promising treatment for patients with gastric liver metastases.
    Print ISSN: 0250-7005
    Electronic ISSN: 1791-7530
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-06-02
    Description: Purpose: Anti-programmed-death-1 (PD-1) immunotherapy improves survival in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but some cases are refractory to treatment, thereby requiring alternative strategies. B7-H3, an immune-checkpoint molecule, is expressed in various malignancies. To our knowledge, this study is the first to evaluate B7-H3 expression in NSCLCs treated with anti-PD-1 therapy and the therapeutic potential of a combination of anti-PD-1 therapy and B7-H3 targeting. Experimental Design: B7-H3 expression was evaluated immunohistochemically in patients with NSCLC ( n = 82), and its relationship with responsiveness to anti-PD-1 therapy and CD8 + tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) was analyzed. The antitumor efficacy of dual anti-B7-H3 and anti-programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) antibody therapy was evaluated using a syngeneic murine cancer model. T-cell numbers and functions were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: B7-H3 expression was evident in 74% of NSCLCs and was correlated critically with nonresponsiveness to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy. A small number of CD8 + TILs was observed as a subpopulation with PD-L1 tumor proportion score less than 50%, whereas CD8 + TILs were still abundant in tumors not expressing B7-H3. Anti-B7-H3 blockade showed antitumor efficacy accompanied with an increased number of CD8 + TILs and recovery of effector function. CD8 + T-cell depletion negated antitumor efficacy induced by B7-H3 blockade, indicating that improved antitumor immunity is mediated by CD8 + T cells. Compared with a single blocking antibody, dual blockade of B7-H3 and PD-L1 enhanced the antitumor reaction. Conclusions: B7-H3 expressed on tumor cells potentially circumvents CD8 + -T-cell–mediated immune surveillance. Anti-B7-H3 immunotherapy combined with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibody therapy is a promising approach for B7-H3–expressing NSCLCs. Clin Cancer Res; 24(11); 2653–64. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-01-28
    Description: Background/Aim: The aim of the present study was to further develop our previous study on c-Met expression in colorectal cancer and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), to investigate EMT in the process of liver metastases, and evaluate the effects of chemotherapy on EMT cells as a therapeutic strategy for colorectal liver metastasis. Materials and Methods: CT26 colon cancer cells were treated with 5-FU and oxaliplatin with or without HGF. The signaling pathway was evaluated by western blotting analysis, and drug resistance was evaluated by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-tetrazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide) assay. Results: Under pretreatment with HGF for 96 h, 5 μM and 10 μM of 5-FU mediated significant growth inhibition by 72.5±3.9% and 76.2±2.4%, respectively, compared to HGF alone, and by 105.1±2.8% and 103.5±2.9%, respectively, without HGF. The expression of E2F1 was decreased significantly to 50.5±3.8% after 24 hours by HGF with a reduction of both cyclin D1 to 52.1±7.0% and E to 73.7±3.8%. Thymidylate synthase was also decreased in a time-dependent manner to 80.6±2.0% after 24 h and to 52.7±1.5% after 96 h. Conclusion: The presence of HGF was found to increase the 5-FU-induced death signal, JNK pathway, and inhibition of cell growth. As its mechanism, HGF was shown to decrease E2F-1 by reducing cyclin D or E by cell-cycle activation, resulting in inactivation of thymidylate synthase. The chemotherapeutic effect of 5-FU was increased in HGF- but not TGF-β-induced EMT.
    Print ISSN: 0250-7005
    Electronic ISSN: 1791-7530
    Topics: Medicine
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