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  • 1
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-04-13
    Description: Antibodies have the specificity to differentiate foreign antigens that mimic self antigens, but it remains unclear how such specificity is acquired. In a mouse model, we generated B cells displaying an antibody that cross-reacts with two related protein antigens expressed on self versus foreign cells. B cell anergy was imposed by self antigen but reversed upon challenge with high-density foreign antigen, leading to germinal center recruitment and antibody gene hypermutation. Single-cell analysis detected rapid selection for mutations that decrease self affinity and slower selection for epistatic mutations that specifically increase foreign affinity. Crystal structures revealed that these mutations exploited subtle topological differences to achieve 5000-fold preferential binding to foreign over self epitopes. Resolution of antigenic mimicry drove the optimal affinity maturation trajectory, highlighting the value of retaining self-reactive clones as substrates for protective antibody responses.
    Keywords: Cell Biology, Immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-04-14
    Description: During immature capsid assembly in cells, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag co-opts a host RNA granule, forming a pathway of intracellular assembly intermediates containing host components, including two cellular facilitators of assembly, ABCE1 and DDX6. A similar assembly pathway has been observed for other primate lentiviruses. Here we asked whether feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a nonprimate lentivirus, also forms RNA granule-derived capsid assembly intermediates. First, we showed that the released FIV immature capsid and a large FIV Gag-containing intracellular complex are unstable during analysis, unlike for HIV-1. We identified harvest conditions, including in situ cross-linking, that overcame this problem, revealing a series of FIV Gag-containing complexes corresponding in size to HIV-1 assembly intermediates. Previously, we showed that assembly-defective HIV-1 Gag mutants are arrested at specific assembly intermediates; here we identified four assembly-defective FIV Gag mutants, including three not previously studied, and demonstrated that they appear to be arrested at the same intermediate as the cognate HIV-1 mutants. Further evidence that these FIV Gag-containing complexes correspond to assembly intermediates came from coimmunoprecipitations demonstrating that endogenous ABCE1 and the RNA granule protein DDX6 are associated with FIV Gag, as shown previously for HIV-1 Gag, but are not associated with a ribosomal protein, at steady state. Additionally, we showed that FIV Gag associates with another RNA granule protein, DCP2. Finally, we validated the FIV Gag-ABCE1 and FIV Gag-DCP2 interactions with proximity ligation assays demonstrating colocalization in situ . Together, these data support a model in which primate and nonprimate lentiviruses form intracellular capsid assembly intermediates derived from nontranslating host RNA granules. IMPORTANCE Like HIV-1 Gag, FIV Gag assembles into immature capsids; however, it is not known whether FIV Gag progresses through a pathway of immature capsid assembly intermediates derived from host RNA granules, as shown for HIV-1 Gag. Here we showed that FIV Gag forms complexes that resemble HIV-1 capsid assembly intermediates in size and in their association with ABCE1 and DDX6, two host facilitators of HIV-1 immature capsid assembly that are found in HIV-1 assembly intermediates. Our studies also showed that known and novel assembly-defective FIV Gag mutants fail to progress past putative intermediates in a pattern resembling that observed for HIV-1 Gag mutants. Finally, we used imaging to demonstrate colocalization of FIV Gag with ABCE1 and with the RNA granule protein DCP2. Thus, we conclude that formation of assembly intermediates derived from host RNA granules is likely conserved between primate and nonprimate lentiviruses and could provide targets for future antiviral strategies.
    Print ISSN: 0022-538X
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5514
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-02-09
    Description: Cytochromes P450s (P450s) catalyze oxygenation reactions via interactions with their redox partners. However, other proteins, particularly other P450s, also have been shown to form complexes that modulate P450 function. Previous studies showed that CYP1A2 and CYP2B4 form a complex when reconstituted into phospholipid vesicles; however, details of the interactions among the P450s and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) have not been fully characterized. The goal of this study was to examine P450 complex formation in living cells, using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET). Various pairs of P450 and POR constructs were tagged with either green fluorescent protein or Renilla luciferase, and transfected into human embryonic kidney 293T cells. Complexes were demonstrated by measuring energy transfer between the tags, and disruption of the complex was verified by cotransfection with unlabeled P450-system proteins. CYP1A2 and CYP2B4 formed a stable complex that could not be disrupted by cotransfection of untagged POR. Interactions of both P450s with POR were detected, with untagged CYP1A2 disrupting the POR-CYP2B4 interaction. In contrast, untagged CYP2B4 did not affect the POR-CYP1A2 interaction. These data are consistent with POR preferentially binding to the CYP1A2 moiety of CYP1A2-CYP2B4. BRET-detectable homomeric CYP1A2-CYP1A2 also was detected, and was disrupted by cotransfection of either POR or CYP2B4. Both CYP1A2 and CYP2B4 activities were affected by their coexpression in a manner consistent with formation of the high-affinity POR-CYP1A2-CYP2B4 complex. These findings demonstrate that CYP1A2 and CYP2B4 form a heteromeric POR-CYP1A2-CYP2B4 complex in living cells that has altered catalytic activities relative to the homomeric enzymes.
    Print ISSN: 0090-9556
    Electronic ISSN: 1521-009X
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: HIV vaccine development is focused on designing immunogens and delivery methods that elicit protective immunity. We evaluated a combination of adenovirus (Ad) vectors expressing HIV 1086.C (clade C) envelope glycoprotein (Env), SIV Gag p55, and human pegivirus GBV-C E2 glycoprotein. We compared replicating simian (SAd7) with nonreplicating human (Ad4) adenovirus-vectored vaccines paired with recombinant proteins in a novel prime-boost regimen in rhesus macaques, with the goal of eliciting protective immunity against SHIV challenge. In both vaccine groups, plasma and buccal Env-specific IgG, tier 1 heterologous neutralizing antibodies, and antibody-dependent cell-mediated viral inhibition were readily generated. High Env-specific T cell responses elicited in all vaccinees were significantly greater than responses targeting Gag. After three intrarectal exposures to heterologous tier 1 clade C SHIV, all 10 sham-vaccinated controls were infected, whereas 4/10 SAd7- and 3/10 Ad4-vaccinated macaques remained uninfected or maintained tightly controlled plasma viremia. Time to infection was significantly delayed in SAd7-vaccinated macaques compared to the controls. Cell-associated and plasma virus levels were significantly lower in each group of vaccinated macaques compared to controls; the lowest plasma viral burden was found in animals vaccinated with the SAd7 vectors, suggesting superior immunity conferred by the replicating simian vectors. Furthermore, higher V1V2-specific binding antibody titers correlated with viral control in the SAd7 vaccine group. Thus, recombinant Ad plus protein vaccines generated humoral and cellular immunity that was effective in either protecting from SHIV acquisition or significantly reducing viremia in animals that became infected, consequently supporting additional development of replicating Ad vectors as HIV vaccines. IMPORTANCE There is a well-acknowledged need for an effective AIDS vaccine that protects against HIV infection and limits in vivo viral replication and associated pathogenesis. Although replicating virus vectors have been advanced as HIV vaccine platforms, there have not been any direct comparisons of the replicating to the nonreplicating format. The present study directly compared the replicating SAd7 to nonreplicating Ad4 vectors in macaques and demonstrated that in the SAd7 vaccine group, the time to infection was significantly delayed compared to the control group, and V1V2 Env-specific binding antibodies correlated with viral outcomes. Viral control was significantly enhanced in vaccinated macaques compared to controls, and in infected SAd7-vaccinated macaques compared to Ad4-vaccinated macaques, suggesting that this vector may have conferred more effective immunity. Because blocking infection is so difficult with current vaccines, development of a vaccine that can limit viremia if infection occurs would be valuable. These data support further development of replicating adenovirus vectors.
    Print ISSN: 0022-538X
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5514
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-07-10
    Description: Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease characterized by increased type I IFNs, autoantibodies, and inflammatory-mediated multiorgan damage. TLR7 activation is an important contributor to systemic lupus erythematosus pathogenesis, but the mechanisms by which type I IFNs participate in TLR7-driven pathologic conditions remain uncertain. In this study, we examined the requirement for type I IFNs in TLR7-stimulated lupus nephritis. Lupus-prone NZM2328, INZM (which lack a functional type I IFN receptor), and NZM2328 IL-1β –/– mice were treated at 10 wk of age on the right ear with R848 (TLR7 agonist) or control (DMSO). Autoantibody production and proteinuria were assessed throughout treatment. Multiorgan inflammation was assessed at the time of decline in health. Renal infiltrates and mRNA expression were also examined after 14 d of treatment. Both NZM2328 and INZM mice exhibited a decline in survival after 3–4 wk of R848 but not vehicle treatment. Development of splenomegaly and liver inflammation were dependent on type I IFN. Interestingly, autoantibody production, early renal infiltration of dendritic cells, upregulation of IL-1β, and lupus nephritis occurred independent of type I IFN signaling. Development of TLR7-driven lupus nephritis was not abolished by the deletion of IL-1β. Thus, although IFN-α is sufficient to induce nephritis acceleration, our data emphasize a critical role for IFN-independent signaling in TLR7-mediated lupus nephritis. Further, despite upregulation of IL-1β after TLR7 stimulation, deletion of IL-1β is not sufficient to reduce lupus nephritis development in this model.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1767
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-6606
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-09-04
    Description: Chemical proteomics reveals new targets of cysteine sulfinic acid reductase Chemical proteomics reveals new targets of cysteine sulfinic acid reductase, Published online: 03 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41589-018-0116-2 An electrophilic diazene probe (DiaAlk) enables capture and proteomic analysis of cysteine S-sulfinylation modifications, thus illuminating dynamic responses to oxidative stress and enabling the identification of new substrates of sulfiredoxin.
    Print ISSN: 1552-4450
    Electronic ISSN: 1552-4469
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-08-17
    Description: Journal of the American Chemical Society DOI: 10.1021/jacs.8b06426
    Print ISSN: 0002-7863
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-5126
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 9
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    Springer Nature
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: Memristors with distorted structures Memristors with distorted structures, Published online: 10 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41563-018-0257-4 Structural transitions departing from the known phases of MoTe2 are induced by applying a vertical electric field to multilayers of this material. These distorted structures show distinct conducting states that can be used for resistive memories.
    Print ISSN: 1476-1122
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4660
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Purpose: Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) is overexpressed in cancer-associated fibroblasts and is an interesting target for cancer immune therapy, with prior studies indicating a potential to affect the tumor stroma. Our aim was to extend this earlier work through the development of a novel FAP immunogen with improved capacity to break tolerance for use in combination with tumor antigen vaccines. Experimental Design: We used a synthetic consensus (SynCon) sequence approach to provide MHC class II help to support breaking of tolerance. We evaluated immune responses and antitumor activity of this novel FAP vaccine in preclinical studies, and correlated these findings to patient data. Results: This SynCon FAP DNA vaccine was capable of breaking tolerance and inducing both CD8 + and CD4 + immune responses. In genetically diverse, outbred mice, the SynCon FAP DNA vaccine was superior at breaking tolerance compared with a native mouse FAP immunogen. In several tumor models, the SynCon FAP DNA vaccine synergized with other tumor antigen–specific DNA vaccines to enhance antitumor immunity. Evaluation of the tumor microenvironment showed increased CD8 + T-cell infiltration and a decreased macrophage infiltration driven by FAP immunization. We extended this to patient data from The Cancer Genome Atlas, where we find high FAP expression correlates with high macrophage and low CD8 + T-cell infiltration. Conclusions: These results suggest that immune therapy targeting tumor antigens in combination with a microconsensus FAP vaccine provides two-fisted punch-inducing responses that target both the tumor microenvironment and tumor cells directly. Clin Cancer Res; 24(5); 1190–201. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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