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  • Animals  (46)
  • Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
  • 2015-2019  (46)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-01-19
    Description: Many procedures in modern clinical medicine rely on the use of electronic implants in treating conditions that range from acute coronary events to traumatic injury. However, standard permanent electronic hardware acts as a nidus for infection: bacteria form biofilms along percutaneous wires, or seed haematogenously, with the potential to migrate within the body and to provoke immune-mediated pathological tissue reactions. The associated surgical retrieval procedures, meanwhile, subject patients to the distress associated with re-operation and expose them to additional complications. Here, we report materials, device architectures, integration strategies, and in vivo demonstrations in rats of implantable, multifunctional silicon sensors for the brain, for which all of the constituent materials naturally resorb via hydrolysis and/or metabolic action, eliminating the need for extraction. Continuous monitoring of intracranial pressure and temperature illustrates functionality essential to the treatment of traumatic brain injury; the measurement performance of our resorbable devices compares favourably with that of non-resorbable clinical standards. In our experiments, insulated percutaneous wires connect to an externally mounted, miniaturized wireless potentiostat for data transmission. In a separate set-up, we connect a sensor to an implanted (but only partially resorbable) data-communication system, proving the principle that there is no need for any percutaneous wiring. The devices can be adapted to sense fluid flow, motion, pH or thermal characteristics, in formats that are compatible with the body's abdomen and extremities, as well as the deep brain, suggesting that the sensors might meet many needs in clinical medicine.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kang, Seung-Kyun -- Murphy, Rory K J -- Hwang, Suk-Won -- Lee, Seung Min -- Harburg, Daniel V -- Krueger, Neil A -- Shin, Jiho -- Gamble, Paul -- Cheng, Huanyu -- Yu, Sooyoun -- Liu, Zhuangjian -- McCall, Jordan G -- Stephen, Manu -- Ying, Hanze -- Kim, Jeonghyun -- Park, Gayoung -- Webb, R Chad -- Lee, Chi Hwan -- Chung, Sangjin -- Wie, Dae Seung -- Gujar, Amit D -- Vemulapalli, Bharat -- Kim, Albert H -- Lee, Kyung-Mi -- Cheng, Jianjun -- Huang, Younggang -- Lee, Sang Hoon -- Braun, Paul V -- Ray, Wilson Z -- Rogers, John A -- F31MH101956/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 4;530(7588):71-6. doi: 10.1038/nature16492. Epub 2016 Jan 18.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA. ; Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA. ; Department of Neurological Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; KU-KIST Graduate School of Converging Science and Technology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701, Republic of Korea. ; Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA. ; Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA. ; Institute of High Performance Computing, Singapore 138632, Singapore. ; Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; Department of Biomicrosystem Technology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701, South Korea. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul 136-713, South Korea. ; Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, The Center for Implantable Devices, Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA. ; School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA. ; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering, and Skin Disease Research Center, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA. ; Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Health Science, Korea University, Seoul 136-703, South Korea. ; Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26779949" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Absorbable Implants/adverse effects ; Administration, Cutaneous ; Animals ; Body Temperature ; Brain/*metabolism/surgery ; Electronics/*instrumentation ; Equipment Design ; Hydrolysis ; Male ; Monitoring, Physiologic/adverse effects/*instrumentation ; Organ Specificity ; Pressure ; *Prostheses and Implants/adverse effects ; Rats ; Rats, Inbred Lew ; *Silicon ; Telemetry/instrumentation ; Wireless Technology/instrumentation
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-06-20
    Description: A challenge for HIV-1 immunogen design is the difficulty of inducing neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against neutralization-resistant (tier 2) viruses that dominate human transmissions. We show that a soluble recombinant HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimer that adopts a native conformation, BG505 SOSIP.664, induced NAbs potently against the sequence-matched tier 2 virus in rabbits and similar but weaker responses in macaques. The trimer also consistently induced cross-reactive NAbs against more sensitive (tier 1) viruses. Tier 2 NAbs recognized conformational epitopes that differed between animals and in some cases overlapped with those recognized by broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs), whereas tier 1 responses targeted linear V3 epitopes. A second trimer, B41 SOSIP.664, also induced a strong autologous tier 2 NAb response in rabbits. Thus, native-like trimers represent a promising starting point for the development of HIV-1 vaccines aimed at inducing bNAbs.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4498988/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4498988/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sanders, Rogier W -- van Gils, Marit J -- Derking, Ronald -- Sok, Devin -- Ketas, Thomas J -- Burger, Judith A -- Ozorowski, Gabriel -- Cupo, Albert -- Simonich, Cassandra -- Goo, Leslie -- Arendt, Heather -- Kim, Helen J -- Lee, Jeong Hyun -- Pugach, Pavel -- Williams, Melissa -- Debnath, Gargi -- Moldt, Brian -- van Breemen, Marielle J -- Isik, Gozde -- Medina-Ramirez, Max -- Back, Jaap Willem -- Koff, Wayne C -- Julien, Jean-Philippe -- Rakasz, Eva G -- Seaman, Michael S -- Guttman, Miklos -- Lee, Kelly K -- Klasse, Per Johan -- LaBranche, Celia -- Schief, William R -- Wilson, Ian A -- Overbaugh, Julie -- Burton, Dennis R -- Ward, Andrew B -- Montefiori, David C -- Dean, Hansi -- Moore, John P -- 280829/European Research Council/International -- HHSN27201100016C/PHS HHS/ -- P01 AI082362/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P51 OD011106/OD/NIH HHS/ -- P51OD011106/OD/NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI076105/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI084817/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI036082/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R56 AI084817/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007266/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- UM1 AI100663/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jul 10;349(6244):aac4223. doi: 10.1126/science.aac4223. Epub 2015 Jun 18.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10065, USA. Department of Medical Microbiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, Netherlands. jpm2003@med.cornell.edu rws2002@med.cornell.edu. ; Department of Medical Microbiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, Netherlands. ; Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, Neutralizing Antibody Center, and Collaboration for AIDS Vaccine Discovery, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10065, USA. ; International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, Neutralizing Antibody Center, and Collaboration for AIDS Vaccine Discovery, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ; Division of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA. ; International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, New York, NY 10004, USA. ; Pepscan Therapeutics, 8243RC Lelystad, Netherlands. ; Wisconsin National Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53715, USA. ; Center for Virology and Vaccine Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, MIT, and Harvard, Boston, MA 02114, USA. ; Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. ; Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA. ; Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, Neutralizing Antibody Center, and Collaboration for AIDS Vaccine Discovery, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, New York, NY 10004, USA. Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, MIT, and Harvard, Boston, MA 02114, USA. ; International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, Neutralizing Antibody Center, and Collaboration for AIDS Vaccine Discovery, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ; Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, Neutralizing Antibody Center, and Collaboration for AIDS Vaccine Discovery, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, MIT, and Harvard, Boston, MA 02114, USA. ; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10065, USA. jpm2003@med.cornell.edu rws2002@med.cornell.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26089353" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: AIDS Vaccines/*immunology ; Animals ; Antibodies, Neutralizing/*immunology ; Cross Reactions ; Epitopes/immunology ; HIV Antibodies/*immunology ; HIV Infections/*prevention & control ; HIV-1/*immunology ; Humans ; Macaca ; Protein Engineering ; Protein Multimerization ; Rabbits ; Recombinant Proteins/chemistry/genetics/immunology ; env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/chemistry/genetics/*immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-10-17
    Description: Neural stem cells show age-dependent developmental potentials, as evidenced by their production of distinct neuron types at different developmental times. Drosophila neuroblasts produce long, stereotyped lineages of neurons. We searched for factors that could regulate neural temporal fate by RNA-sequencing lineage-specific neuroblasts at various developmental times. We found that two RNA-binding proteins, IGF-II mRNA-binding protein (Imp) and Syncrip (Syp), display opposing high-to-low and low-to-high temporal gradients with lineage-specific temporal dynamics. Imp and Syp promote early and late fates, respectively, in both a slowly progressing and a rapidly changing lineage. Imp and Syp control neuronal fates in the mushroom body lineages by regulating the temporal transcription factor Chinmo translation. Together, the opposing Imp/Syp gradients encode stem cell age, specifying multiple cell fates within a lineage.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Liu, Zhiyong -- Yang, Ching-Po -- Sugino, Ken -- Fu, Chi-Cheng -- Liu, Ling-Yu -- Yao, Xiaohao -- Lee, Luke P -- Lee, Tzumin -- R01-GM084947/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Oct 16;350(6258):317-20. doi: 10.1126/science.aad1886.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Janelia Research Campus, 19700 Helix Drive, Ashburn, VA, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Janelia Research Campus, 19700 Helix Drive, Ashburn, VA, USA. Departments of Bioengineering, Electrical Engineering, and Computer Science, and Biophysics Graduate Program, University of California Berkeley, 408C Stanley Hall, Berkeley, CA, USA. ; Departments of Bioengineering, Electrical Engineering, and Computer Science, and Biophysics Graduate Program, University of California Berkeley, 408C Stanley Hall, Berkeley, CA, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Janelia Research Campus, 19700 Helix Drive, Ashburn, VA, USA. leet@janelia.hhmi.org.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26472907" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Cell Lineage ; Drosophila Proteins/genetics/metabolism/*physiology ; Drosophila melanogaster/genetics/*growth & development ; Mushroom Bodies/cytology/growth & development ; Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism ; Neural Stem Cells/*cytology ; Neurogenesis/genetics/*physiology ; Neurons/*cytology ; RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics/*physiology ; Sequence Analysis, RNA
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-01-30
    Description: Dietary antigens are normally rendered nonimmunogenic through a poorly understood "oral tolerance" mechanism that involves immunosuppressive regulatory T (Treg) cells, especially Treg cells induced from conventional T cells in the periphery (pTreg cells). Although orally introducing nominal protein antigens is known to induce such pTreg cells, whether a typical diet induces a population of pTreg cells under normal conditions thus far has been unknown. By using germ-free mice raised and bred on an elemental diet devoid of dietary antigens, we demonstrated that under normal conditions, the vast majority of the small intestinal pTreg cells are induced by dietary antigens from solid foods. Moreover, these pTreg cells have a limited life span, are distinguishable from microbiota-induced pTreg cells, and repress underlying strong immunity to ingested protein antigens.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kim, Kwang Soon -- Hong, Sung-Wook -- Han, Daehee -- Yi, Jaeu -- Jung, Jisun -- Yang, Bo-Gie -- Lee, Jun Young -- Lee, Minji -- Surh, Charles D -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 19;351(6275):858-63. doi: 10.1126/science.aac5560. Epub 2016 Jan 28.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Academy of Immunology and Microbiology, Institute for Basic Science, Pohang, Republic of Korea. Department of Integrative Biosciences and Biotechnology, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Republic of Korea. ; Academy of Immunology and Microbiology, Institute for Basic Science, Pohang, Republic of Korea. Department of Integrative Biosciences and Biotechnology, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Republic of Korea. Division of Developmental Immunology, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26822607" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antigens/immunology ; Diet ; Dietary Proteins/*immunology ; Dyspepsia/*immunology ; Gastrointestinal Microbiome/*immunology ; Germ-Free Life ; Immune Tolerance ; Immunity, Mucosal ; Intestine, Small/*immunology/*microbiology ; Lymphocyte Activation ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/*immunology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: Visualizing the physical basis for molecular behaviour inside living cells is a great challenge for biology. RNAs are central to biological regulation, and the ability of RNA to adopt specific structures intimately controls every step of the gene expression program. However, our understanding of physiological RNA structures is limited; current in vivo RNA structure profiles include only two of the four nucleotides that make up RNA. Here we present a novel biochemical approach, in vivo click selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation and profiling experiment (icSHAPE), which enables the first global view, to our knowledge, of RNA secondary structures in living cells for all four bases. icSHAPE of the mouse embryonic stem cell transcriptome versus purified RNA folded in vitro shows that the structural dynamics of RNA in the cellular environment distinguish different classes of RNAs and regulatory elements. Structural signatures at translational start sites and ribosome pause sites are conserved from in vitro conditions, suggesting that these RNA elements are programmed by sequence. In contrast, focal structural rearrangements in vivo reveal precise interfaces of RNA with RNA-binding proteins or RNA-modification sites that are consistent with atomic-resolution structural data. Such dynamic structural footprints enable accurate prediction of RNA-protein interactions and N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) modification genome wide. These results open the door for structural genomics of RNA in living cells and reveal key physiological structures controlling gene expression.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4376618/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4376618/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Spitale, Robert C -- Flynn, Ryan A -- Zhang, Qiangfeng Cliff -- Crisalli, Pete -- Lee, Byron -- Jung, Jong-Wha -- Kuchelmeister, Hannes Y -- Batista, Pedro J -- Torre, Eduardo A -- Kool, Eric T -- Chang, Howard Y -- F30 CA189514/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- F30CA189514/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P50 HG007735/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- P50HG007735/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004361/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01HG004361/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- T32 CA009302/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- T32AR007422/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Mar 26;519(7544):486-90. doi: 10.1038/nature14263. Epub 2015 Mar 18.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Program in Epithelial Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25799993" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acylation ; Adenosine/analogs & derivatives ; Animals ; Binding Sites ; Cell Survival ; Click Chemistry ; Computational Biology ; Embryonic Stem Cells/cytology/metabolism ; *Gene Expression Regulation/genetics ; Genome/genetics ; Mice ; Models, Molecular ; *Nucleic Acid Conformation ; Protein Biosynthesis/genetics ; RNA/*chemistry/classification/*genetics/metabolism ; RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism ; Regulatory Sequences, Ribonucleic Acid/genetics ; Ribosomes/metabolism ; Transcriptome/genetics
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-12-10
    Description: Inactivation of the TNFAIP3 gene, encoding the A20 protein, is associated with critical inflammatory diseases including multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease. However, the role of A20 in attenuating inflammatory signalling is unclear owing to paradoxical in vitro and in vivo findings. Here we utilize genetically engineered mice bearing mutations in the A20 ovarian tumour (OTU)-type deubiquitinase domain or in the zinc finger-4 (ZnF4) ubiquitin-binding motif to investigate these discrepancies. We find that phosphorylation of A20 promotes cleavage of Lys63-linked polyubiquitin chains by the OTU domain and enhances ZnF4-mediated substrate ubiquitination. Additionally, levels of linear ubiquitination dictate whether A20-deficient cells die in response to tumour necrosis factor. Mechanistically, linear ubiquitin chains preserve the architecture of the TNFR1 signalling complex by blocking A20-mediated disassembly of Lys63-linked polyubiquitin scaffolds. Collectively, our studies reveal molecular mechanisms whereby A20 deubiquitinase activity and ubiquitin binding, linear ubiquitination, and cellular kinases cooperate to regulate inflammation and cell death.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wertz, Ingrid E -- Newton, Kim -- Seshasayee, Dhaya -- Kusam, Saritha -- Lam, Cynthia -- Zhang, Juan -- Popovych, Nataliya -- Helgason, Elizabeth -- Schoeffler, Allyn -- Jeet, Surinder -- Ramamoorthi, Nandhini -- Kategaya, Lorna -- Newman, Robert J -- Horikawa, Keisuke -- Dugger, Debra -- Sandoval, Wendy -- Mukund, Susmith -- Zindal, Anuradha -- Martin, Flavius -- Quan, Clifford -- Tom, Jeffrey -- Fairbrother, Wayne J -- Townsend, Michael -- Warming, Soren -- DeVoss, Jason -- Liu, Jinfeng -- Dueber, Erin -- Caplazi, Patrick -- Lee, Wyne P -- Goodnow, Christopher C -- Balazs, Mercedesz -- Yu, Kebing -- Kolumam, Ganesh -- Dixit, Vishva M -- England -- Nature. 2015 Dec 17;528(7582):370-5. doi: 10.1038/nature16165. Epub 2015 Dec 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Discovery Oncology, Genentech, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA. ; Early Discovery Biochemistry, Genentech, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA. ; Physiological Chemistry, Genentech, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA. ; Immunology, Genentech, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA. ; Molecular Biology, Genentech, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA. ; Department of Cancer Biology and Therapeutics, The John Curtin School of Medical Research, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2601, Australia. ; Protein Chemistry, Genentech, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA. ; Structural Biology, Genentech, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA. ; Bioinformatics, Genentech, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA. ; Pathology, Genentech, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA. ; Immunogenomics Laboratory, Immunology Division, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, 384 Victoria Street, Darlinghurst, New South Wales 2010, Sydney, Australia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26649818" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Death ; Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Female ; Inflammation/genetics/*metabolism/pathology ; Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Lysine/metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mutation ; Phosphorylation ; Polyubiquitin/chemistry/metabolism ; Protein Binding ; Protein Kinases/metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism ; Ubiquitin/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Ubiquitination
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2015-11-05
    Description: Staphylococcus aureus is considered to be an extracellular pathogen. However, survival of S. aureus within host cells may provide a reservoir relatively protected from antibiotics, thus enabling long-term colonization of the host and explaining clinical failures and relapses after antibiotic therapy. Here we confirm that intracellular reservoirs of S. aureus in mice comprise a virulent subset of bacteria that can establish infection even in the presence of vancomycin, and we introduce a novel therapeutic that effectively kills intracellular S. aureus. This antibody-antibiotic conjugate consists of an anti-S. aureus antibody conjugated to a highly efficacious antibiotic that is activated only after it is released in the proteolytic environment of the phagolysosome. The antibody-antibiotic conjugate is superior to vancomycin for treatment of bacteraemia and provides direct evidence that intracellular S. aureus represents an important component of invasive infections.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lehar, Sophie M -- Pillow, Thomas -- Xu, Min -- Staben, Leanna -- Kajihara, Kimberly K -- Vandlen, Richard -- DePalatis, Laura -- Raab, Helga -- Hazenbos, Wouter L -- Morisaki, J Hiroshi -- Kim, Janice -- Park, Summer -- Darwish, Martine -- Lee, Byoung-Chul -- Hernandez, Hilda -- Loyet, Kelly M -- Lupardus, Patrick -- Fong, Rina -- Yan, Donghong -- Chalouni, Cecile -- Luis, Elizabeth -- Khalfin, Yana -- Plise, Emile -- Cheong, Jonathan -- Lyssikatos, Joseph P -- Strandh, Magnus -- Koefoed, Klaus -- Andersen, Peter S -- Flygare, John A -- Wah Tan, Man -- Brown, Eric J -- Mariathasan, Sanjeev -- England -- Nature. 2015 Nov 19;527(7578):323-8. doi: 10.1038/nature16057. Epub 2015 Nov 4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Infectious Diseases Department, Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, California 94080, USA. ; Medicinal Chemistry Department, Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, California 94080, USA. ; Translational Immunology Department, Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, California 94080, USA. ; Protein Chemistry Department, Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, California 94080, USA. ; Biochemical and Cellular Pharmacology Department, Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, California 94080, USA. ; Structural Biology Department, Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, California 94080, USA. ; Pathology Department, Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, California 94080, USA. ; Drug metabolism and Pharmacokinetics Department, Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, California 94080, USA. ; Symphogen A/S, Pederstrupvej 93, DK-2750 Ballerup, Denmark.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26536114" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Anti-Bacterial Agents/*pharmacology/therapeutic use ; *Bacteremia/drug therapy/microbiology ; Carrier State/drug therapy/microbiology ; Drug Design ; Female ; Immunoconjugates/chemistry/*pharmacology/*therapeutic use ; Intracellular Space/drug effects/*microbiology ; Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects/pathogenicity ; Mice ; Microbial Sensitivity Tests ; Phagosomes/drug effects/metabolism/microbiology ; Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy/*microbiology/pathology ; Staphylococcus aureus/*drug effects/pathogenicity ; Vancomycin/*pharmacology/therapeutic use
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-06-11
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lee, Seung-Jae -- Masliah, Eliezer -- England -- Nature. 2015 Jun 18;522(7556):296-7. doi: 10.1038/nature14526. Epub 2015 Jun 10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Neuroscience Research Institute, Department of Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799, Korea. ; Department of Pathology and Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26061764" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Female ; Humans ; Lewy Body Disease/*chemically induced ; Multiple System Atrophy/*chemically induced ; Parkinson Disease/*pathology ; alpha-Synuclein/*administration & dosage/*toxicity
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2015-08-27
    Description: The GGGGCC (G4C2) repeat expansion in a noncoding region of C9orf72 is the most common cause of sporadic and familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. The basis for pathogenesis is unknown. To elucidate the consequences of G4C2 repeat expansion in a tractable genetic system, we generated transgenic fly lines expressing 8, 28 or 58 G4C2-repeat-containing transcripts that do not have a translation start site (AUG) but contain an open-reading frame for green fluorescent protein to detect repeat-associated non-AUG (RAN) translation. We show that these transgenic animals display dosage-dependent, repeat-length-dependent degeneration in neuronal tissues and RAN translation of dipeptide repeat (DPR) proteins, as observed in patients with C9orf72-related disease. This model was used in a large-scale, unbiased genetic screen, ultimately leading to the identification of 18 genetic modifiers that encode components of the nuclear pore complex (NPC), as well as the machinery that coordinates the export of nuclear RNA and the import of nuclear proteins. Consistent with these results, we found morphological abnormalities in the architecture of the nuclear envelope in cells expressing expanded G4C2 repeats in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we identified a substantial defect in RNA export resulting in retention of RNA in the nuclei of Drosophila cells expressing expanded G4C2 repeats and also in mammalian cells, including aged induced pluripotent stem-cell-derived neurons from patients with C9orf72-related disease. These studies show that a primary consequence of G4C2 repeat expansion is the compromise of nucleocytoplasmic transport through the nuclear pore, revealing a novel mechanism of neurodegeneration.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4631399/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4631399/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Freibaum, Brian D -- Lu, Yubing -- Lopez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo -- Kim, Nam Chul -- Almeida, Sandra -- Lee, Kyung-Ha -- Badders, Nisha -- Valentine, Marc -- Miller, Bruce L -- Wong, Philip C -- Petrucelli, Leonard -- Kim, Hong Joo -- Gao, Fen-Biao -- Taylor, J Paul -- AG019724/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- N079725/PHS HHS/ -- NS079725/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P01 AG019724/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS057553/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS079725/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Sep 3;525(7567):129-33. doi: 10.1038/nature14974. Epub 2015 Aug 26.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. ; Department of Neurology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA. ; Memory and Aging Center, Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94158, USA. ; Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. ; Department of Neuroscience, Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, Florida 32224, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26308899" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Active Transport, Cell Nucleus/*genetics ; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/genetics/pathology ; Animals ; Animals, Genetically Modified ; DNA Repeat Expansion/*genetics ; Drosophila melanogaster/*cytology/genetics/*metabolism ; Eye/metabolism ; Female ; Frontotemporal Dementia/genetics/pathology ; HeLa Cells ; Humans ; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology/metabolism ; Male ; Muscles/cytology/metabolism ; Neurons/cytology/metabolism ; Nuclear Pore/genetics/metabolism/pathology ; Open Reading Frames/*genetics ; Phenotype ; Protein Biosynthesis ; Proteins/*genetics ; RNA/genetics/metabolism ; RNA Transport/*genetics ; Salivary Glands/cytology/metabolism/pathology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2015-06-02
    Description: One of the characteristics of the central nervous system is the lack of a classical lymphatic drainage system. Although it is now accepted that the central nervous system undergoes constant immune surveillance that takes place within the meningeal compartment, the mechanisms governing the entrance and exit of immune cells from the central nervous system remain poorly understood. In searching for T-cell gateways into and out of the meninges, we discovered functional lymphatic vessels lining the dural sinuses. These structures express all of the molecular hallmarks of lymphatic endothelial cells, are able to carry both fluid and immune cells from the cerebrospinal fluid, and are connected to the deep cervical lymph nodes. The unique location of these vessels may have impeded their discovery to date, thereby contributing to the long-held concept of the absence of lymphatic vasculature in the central nervous system. The discovery of the central nervous system lymphatic system may call for a reassessment of basic assumptions in neuroimmunology and sheds new light on the aetiology of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases associated with immune system dysfunction.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4506234/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4506234/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Louveau, Antoine -- Smirnov, Igor -- Keyes, Timothy J -- Eccles, Jacob D -- Rouhani, Sherin J -- Peske, J David -- Derecki, Noel C -- Castle, David -- Mandell, James W -- Lee, Kevin S -- Harris, Tajie H -- Kipnis, Jonathan -- P30 CA044579/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG034113/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS061973/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01AG034113/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01NS061973/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Jul 16;523(7560):337-41. doi: 10.1038/nature14432. Epub 2015 Jun 1.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Center for Brain Immunology and Glia, School of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA [2] Department of Neuroscience, School of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA. ; 1] Medical Scientist Training Program, School of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA [2] Beirne B. Carter Center for Immunology Research, School of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA [3] Department of Medicine (Division of Allergy), School of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA. ; 1] Medical Scientist Training Program, School of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA [2] Beirne B. Carter Center for Immunology Research, School of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA [3] Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Cancer Biology, School of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA. ; Department of Cell Biology, School of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA. ; Department of Pathology (Neuropathology), School of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA. ; 1] Center for Brain Immunology and Glia, School of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA [2] Department of Neuroscience, School of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA [3] Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA. ; 1] Center for Brain Immunology and Glia, School of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA [2] Department of Neuroscience, School of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA [3] Medical Scientist Training Program, School of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26030524" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Central Nervous System/*anatomy & histology/cytology/*immunology ; Cranial Sinuses/anatomy & histology ; Female ; Humans ; Immune Tolerance/immunology ; Immunologic Surveillance/immunology ; Lymphatic Vessels/*anatomy & histology/cytology/*immunology ; Male ; Meninges/anatomy & histology/cytology/immunology ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; T-Lymphocytes/cytology/immunology
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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