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  • 2015-2019  (126)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-09-07
    Description: Galaxies grow inefficiently, with only a small percentage of the available gas converted into stars each free-fall time. Feedback processes, such as outflowing winds driven by radiation pressure, supernovae, or supermassive black hole accretion, can act to halt star formation if they heat or expel the gas supply. We report a molecular outflow launched from a dust-rich star-forming galaxy at redshift 5.3, 1 billion years after the Big Bang. The outflow reaches velocities up to 800 kilometers per second relative to the galaxy, is resolved into multiple clumps, and carries mass at a rate within a factor of 2 of the star formation rate. Our results show that molecular outflows can remove a large fraction of the gas available for star formation from galaxies at high redshift.
    Keywords: Astronomy
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Kawasaki disease (KD) is a form of systemic vasculitis that generally occurs in children under 5 years old. Currently, KD is still diagnosed according to its clinical symptoms, including prolonged fever, skin rash, conjunctivitis, neck lymphadenopathy, palm erythema, and oral mucosa changes. Because KD is a type of inflammation without specific marker for diagnosis, we plan to profile the plasma antibodies by using E. coli proteome microarray and analyze the differences between KD and healthy subjects. Plasmas were collected from KD patient before intravenous immunoglobulin treatment (KD1), at least 3 weeks after treatment (KD3), nonfever control (NC), and fever control (FC) children. The initial screening, which consisted of 20 KD1, 20 KD3, 20 NC, and 20 FC, were explored using E. coli proteome microarrays (~4200 unique proteins). About ~70 proteins were shown to have high accuracy, e.g. 0.78~0.92, with regard to separating KD1, KD3, NC, and FC. Those proteins were then purified to fabricate KD focus arrays for training ( n = 20 each) and blind-testing ( n = 20 each). It only took 125 pl of plasma, less than a drop of blood, in the focus array assays. The AUC scores for blind tests of KD1 versus NC (17 protein markers), KD1 versus FC (20 protein markers), KD3 versus NC (9 protein markers), and KD1 versus KD3 (6 protein markers) were 0.84, 0.75, 0.99 and 0.98, respectively. This study is the first to profile plasma antibodies in KD and demonstrate that an E. coli proteome microarray can screen differences among patients with KD, nonfever controls, and fever controls.
    Print ISSN: 1535-9476
    Electronic ISSN: 1535-9484
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-04-27
    Description: Next-generation sequencing of 6 mcr-1 -harboring Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates collected from a tertiary care hospital in China revealed significant sequence variations in the regions flanking the mcr-1 gene. While sequence variations significantly affected the expression and promoter activity of mcr-1 , the mcr-1 gene expression levels did not correlate with the in vitro colistin resistance levels, which warrants further in-depth investigations.
    Print ISSN: 0066-4804
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-6596
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: Background/Aim: Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Patients with metastatic HCC (mHCC) show poor prognosis and high mortality. In previous reports, gelsolin-like actin-capping protein (CapG) has been demonstrated to regulate cancer invasion and metastasis in various human cancers. In this study, the expression of CapG was verified in normal and/or HCCs' specimens and HCC cell lines. Moreover, the bio-activity of CapG was also investigated. Materials and Methods: The expression of CapG was examined in HCC's tissue-array by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. The mRNA and protein of CapG in three HCC cell lines were determined using real-time RT-PCR and western blot. Moreover, a trans-well migration model and a matrigel-trans-well invasion assay were used to address the bio-activity of CapG in HCC cell lines. Results: CapG was detected in the cytoplasm of normal liver tissue and HCC specimens. Importantly, CapG expression was elevated in the HCC specimens compared to normal cases and was significantly overexpressed in mHCC cases compared to normal cases. Moreover, patients with highly expressed CapG showed greater mortality in HCC cases. In addition, the RNA and protein levels of CapG among three HCC cell lines showed a positive association with cellular migration and invasive ability. CapG knockdown with shRNA in HCC cells also verified this finding. Conclusion: In the present study, it is demonstrated that CapG is expressed in the cytoplasm and could be used as a prognostic or diagnostic biomarker for mHCC in clinical specimens. Moreover, CapG might contribute to tumor motility and cancer-associated mortality.
    Print ISSN: 0250-7005
    Electronic ISSN: 1791-7530
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: Aging in humans is associated with increased hyperglycemia and insulin resistance (collectively termed IR) and dysregulation of the immune system. However, the causative factors underlying their association remain unknown. Here, using "healthy" aged mice and macaques, we found that IR was induced by activated innate 4-1BBL + B1a cells. These cells (also known as 4BL cells) accumulated in aging in response to changes in gut commensals and a decrease in beneficial metabolites such as butyrate. We found evidence suggesting that loss of the commensal bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila impaired intestinal integrity, causing leakage of bacterial products such as endotoxin, which activated CCR2 + monocytes when butyrate was decreased. Upon infiltration into the omentum, CCR2 + monocytes converted B1a cells into 4BL cells, which, in turn, induced IR by expressing 4-1BBL, presumably to trigger 4-1BB receptor signaling as in obesity-induced metabolic disorders. This pathway and IR were reversible, as supplementation with either A. muciniphila or the antibiotic enrofloxacin, which increased the abundance of A. muciniphila , restored normal insulin response in aged mice and macaques. In addition, treatment with butyrate or antibodies that depleted CCR2 + monocytes or 4BL cells had the same effect on IR. These results underscore the pathological function of B1a cells and suggest that the microbiome–monocyte–B cell axis could potentially be targeted to reverse age-associated IR.
    Print ISSN: 1946-6234
    Electronic ISSN: 1946-6242
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-12-21
    Keywords: Multiple Myeloma, Free Research Articles, BloodWork, Lymphoid Neoplasia
    Print ISSN: 0006-4971
    Electronic ISSN: 1528-0020
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2015-09-17
    Description: Development of functional nanoparticles can be encumbered by unanticipated material properties and biological events, which can affect nanoparticle effectiveness in complex, physiologically relevant systems. Despite the advances in bottom-up nanoengineering and surface chemistry, reductionist functionalization approaches remain inadequate in replicating the complex interfaces present in nature and cannot avoid exposure of foreign materials. Here we report on the preparation of polymeric nanoparticles enclosed in the plasma membrane of human platelets, which are a unique population of cellular fragments that adhere to a variety of disease-relevant substrates. The resulting nanoparticles possess a right-side-out unilamellar membrane coating functionalized with immunomodulatory and adhesion antigens associated with platelets. Compared to uncoated particles, the platelet membrane-cloaked nanoparticles have reduced cellular uptake by macrophage-like cells and lack particle-induced complement activation in autologous human plasma. The cloaked nanoparticles also display platelet-mimicking properties such as selective adhesion to damaged human and rodent vasculatures as well as enhanced binding to platelet-adhering pathogens. In an experimental rat model of coronary restenosis and a mouse model of systemic bacterial infection, docetaxel and vancomycin, respectively, show enhanced therapeutic efficacy when delivered by the platelet-mimetic nanoparticles. The multifaceted biointerfacing enabled by the platelet membrane cloaking method provides a new approach in developing functional nanoparticles for disease-targeted delivery.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hu, Che-Ming J -- Fang, Ronnie H -- Wang, Kuei-Chun -- Luk, Brian T -- Thamphiwatana, Soracha -- Dehaini, Diana -- Nguyen, Phu -- Angsantikul, Pavimol -- Wen, Cindy H -- Kroll, Ashley V -- Carpenter, Cody -- Ramesh, Manikantan -- Qu, Vivian -- Patel, Sherrina H -- Zhu, Jie -- Shi, William -- Hofman, Florence M -- Chen, Thomas C -- Gao, Weiwei -- Zhang, Kang -- Chien, Shu -- Zhang, Liangfang -- R01DK095168/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01EY25090/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL108735/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R25CA153915/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Oct 1;526(7571):118-21. doi: 10.1038/nature15373. Epub 2015 Sep 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of NanoEngineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; Department of Bioengineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; Institute of Engineering in Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; Shiley Eye Institute, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; Department of Pathology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA. ; Veterans Administration Healthcare System, San Diego, California 92093, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26374997" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Anti-Bacterial Agents/*administration & dosage/pharmacokinetics ; Blood Platelets/*cytology ; Blood Vessels/cytology/metabolism/pathology ; Cell Membrane/*metabolism ; Collagen/chemistry/immunology ; Complement Activation/immunology ; Coronary Restenosis/blood/drug therapy/metabolism ; Disease Models, Animal ; Drug Delivery Systems/*methods ; Humans ; Macrophages/immunology ; Male ; Mice ; Nanoparticles/*administration & dosage/*chemistry ; *Platelet Adhesiveness ; Polymers/chemistry ; Rats ; Rats, Sprague-Dawley ; Staphylococcal Infections/blood/drug therapy/metabolism/microbiology ; Staphylococcus aureus/cytology/metabolism ; Taxoids/administration & dosage/pharmacokinetics ; Unilamellar Liposomes/chemistry ; Vancomycin/administration & dosage/pharmacokinetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-04-08
    Description: The development of new rechargeable battery systems could fuel various energy applications, from personal electronics to grid storage. Rechargeable aluminium-based batteries offer the possibilities of low cost and low flammability, together with three-electron-redox properties leading to high capacity. However, research efforts over the past 30 years have encountered numerous problems, such as cathode material disintegration, low cell discharge voltage (about 0.55 volts; ref. 5), capacitive behaviour without discharge voltage plateaus (1.1-0.2 volts or 1.8-0.8 volts) and insufficient cycle life (less than 100 cycles) with rapid capacity decay (by 26-85 per cent over 100 cycles). Here we present a rechargeable aluminium battery with high-rate capability that uses an aluminium metal anode and a three-dimensional graphitic-foam cathode. The battery operates through the electrochemical deposition and dissolution of aluminium at the anode, and intercalation/de-intercalation of chloroaluminate anions in the graphite, using a non-flammable ionic liquid electrolyte. The cell exhibits well-defined discharge voltage plateaus near 2 volts, a specific capacity of about 70 mA h g(-1) and a Coulombic efficiency of approximately 98 per cent. The cathode was found to enable fast anion diffusion and intercalation, affording charging times of around one minute with a current density of ~4,000 mA g(-1) (equivalent to ~3,000 W kg(-1)), and to withstand more than 7,500 cycles without capacity decay.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lin, Meng-Chang -- Gong, Ming -- Lu, Bingan -- Wu, Yingpeng -- Wang, Di-Yan -- Guan, Mingyun -- Angell, Michael -- Chen, Changxin -- Yang, Jiang -- Hwang, Bing-Joe -- Dai, Hongjie -- England -- Nature. 2015 Apr 16;520(7547):325-8. doi: 10.1038/nature14340. Epub 2015 Apr 6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA [2] Green Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu 31040, Taiwan. ; Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; 1] Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA [2] School of Physics and Electronics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China. ; 1] Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA [2] Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 11677, Taiwan [3] Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan. ; Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25849777" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2015-01-09
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Liu, Yansui -- Li, Yuheng -- Chen, Cong -- England -- Nature. 2015 Jan 8;517(7533):145. doi: 10.1038/517145d.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Beijing Normal University; and Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25567275" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Air Pollution/*prevention & control/statistics & numerical data ; China ; Congresses as Topic ; Environmental Policy/*legislation & jurisprudence/*trends ; Particulate Matter/analysis ; Smog/*prevention & control
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2015-08-27
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tong, Yi-Gang -- Shi, Wei-Feng -- Liu, Di -- Qian, Jun -- Liang, Long -- Bo, Xiao-Chen -- Liu, Jun -- Ren, Hong-Guang -- Fan, Hang -- Ni, Ming -- Sun, Yang -- Jin, Yuan -- Teng, Yue -- Li, Zhen -- Kargbo, David -- Dafae, Foday -- Kanu, Alex -- Chen, Cheng-Chao -- Lan, Zhi-Heng -- Jiang, Hui -- Luo, Yang -- Lu, Hui-Jun -- Zhang, Xiao-Guang -- Yang, Fan -- Hu, Yi -- Cao, Yu-Xi -- Deng, Yong-Qiang -- Su, Hao-Xiang -- Sun, Yu -- Liu, Wen-Sen -- Wang, Zhuang -- Wang, Cheng-Yu -- Bu, Zhao-Yang -- Guo, Zhen-Dong -- Zhang, Liu-Bo -- Nie, Wei-Min -- Bai, Chang-Qing -- Sun, Chun-Hua -- An, Xiao-Ping -- Xu, Pei-Song -- Zhang, Xiang-Li-Lan -- Huang, Yong -- Mi, Zhi-Qiang -- Yu, Dong -- Yao, Hong-Wu -- Feng, Yong -- Xia, Zhi-Ping -- Zheng, Xue-Xing -- Yang, Song-Tao -- Lu, Bing -- Jiang, Jia-Fu -- Kargbo, Brima -- He, Fu-Chu -- Gao, George F -- Cao, Wu-Chun -- China Mobile Laboratory Testing Team in Sierra Leone -- England -- Nature. 2015 Oct 22;526(7574):595. doi: 10.1038/nature15255. Epub 2015 Aug 26.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26308898" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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