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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-05-02
    Description: Purpose: No validated biomarkers that could identify the subset of patients with lung adenocarcinoma who might benefit from chemotherapy have yet been well established. This study aimed to explore potential biomarker model predictive of efficacy and survival outcomes after first-line pemetrexed plus platinum doublet based on metabolomics profiling. Experimental Design: In total, 354 consecutive eligible patients were assigned to receive first-line chemotherapy of pemetrexed in combination with either cisplatin or carboplatin. Prospectively collected serum samples before initial treatment were utilized to perform metabolomics profiling analyses under the application of LC/MS-MS. Binary logistic regression analysis was carried out to establish discrimination models. Results: There were 251 cases randomly sorted into discovery set, the rest of 103 cases into validation set. Seven metabolites including hypotaurine, uridine, dodecanoylcarnitine, choline, dimethylglycine, niacinamide, and l -palmitoylcarnitine were identified associated with chemo response. On the basis of the seven-metabolite panel, a discriminant model according to logistic regression values g(z) was established with the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.912 (Discovery set) and 0.909 (Validation set) in differentiating progressive disease (PD) groups from disease control (DC) groups. The median progression-free survival (PFS) after chemotherapy in patients with g(z) ≤0.155 was significantly longer than that in those with g(z) 〉 0.155 (10.3 vs.4.5 months, P 〈 0.001). Conclusions: This study developed an effective and convenient discriminant model that can accurately predict the efficacy and survival outcomes of pemetrexed plus platinum doublet chemotherapy prior to treatment delivery. Clin Cancer Res; 24(9); 2100–9. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-01-12
    Description: We constructed highly oriented and ordered macropores within metal-organic framework (MOF) single crystals, opening up the area of three-dimensional–ordered macro-microporous materials (that is, materials containing both macro- and micropores) in single-crystalline form. Our methodology relies on the strong shaping effects of a polystyrene nanosphere monolith template and a double-solvent–induced heterogeneous nucleation approach. This process synergistically enabled the in situ growth of MOFs within ordered voids, rendering a single crystal with oriented and ordered macro-microporous structure. The improved mass diffusion properties of such hierarchical frameworks, together with their robust single-crystalline nature, endow them with superior catalytic activity and recyclability for bulky-molecule reactions, as compared with conventional, polycrystalline hollow, and disordered macroporous ZIF-8.
    Keywords: Chemistry, Materials Science
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-02-11
    Description: Gene expression can be regulated post-transcriptionally through dynamic and reversible RNA modifications. A recent noteworthy example is N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A), which affects messenger RNA (mRNA) localization, stability, translation and splicing. Here we report on a new mRNA modification, N(1)-methyladenosine (m(1)A), that occurs on thousands of different gene transcripts in eukaryotic cells, from yeast to mammals, at an estimated average transcript stoichiometry of 20% in humans. Employing newly developed sequencing approaches, we show that m(1)A is enriched around the start codon upstream of the first splice site: it preferentially decorates more structured regions around canonical and alternative translation initiation sites, is dynamic in response to physiological conditions, and correlates positively with protein production. These unique features are highly conserved in mouse and human cells, strongly indicating a functional role for m(1)A in promoting translation of methylated mRNA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Dominissini, Dan -- Nachtergaele, Sigrid -- Moshitch-Moshkovitz, Sharon -- Peer, Eyal -- Kol, Nitzan -- Ben-Haim, Moshe Shay -- Dai, Qing -- Di Segni, Ayelet -- Salmon-Divon, Mali -- Clark, Wesley C -- Zheng, Guanqun -- Pan, Tao -- Solomon, Oz -- Eyal, Eran -- Hershkovitz, Vera -- Han, Dali -- Dore, Louis C -- Amariglio, Ninette -- Rechavi, Gideon -- He, Chuan -- GM113194/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM71440/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- HG006699/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- HG008688/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 25;530(7591):441-6. doi: 10.1038/nature16998. Epub 2016 Feb 10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemistry and Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, 929 East 57th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The University of Chicago, 929 East 57th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. ; Cancer Research Center, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer 52621, Israel. ; Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Chicago, 929 East 57th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. ; The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900, Israel.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-01-30
    Description: Dietary antigens are normally rendered nonimmunogenic through a poorly understood "oral tolerance" mechanism that involves immunosuppressive regulatory T (Treg) cells, especially Treg cells induced from conventional T cells in the periphery (pTreg cells). Although orally introducing nominal protein antigens is known to induce such pTreg cells, whether a typical diet induces a population of pTreg cells under normal conditions thus far has been unknown. By using germ-free mice raised and bred on an elemental diet devoid of dietary antigens, we demonstrated that under normal conditions, the vast majority of the small intestinal pTreg cells are induced by dietary antigens from solid foods. Moreover, these pTreg cells have a limited life span, are distinguishable from microbiota-induced pTreg cells, and repress underlying strong immunity to ingested protein antigens.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kim, Kwang Soon -- Hong, Sung-Wook -- Han, Daehee -- Yi, Jaeu -- Jung, Jisun -- Yang, Bo-Gie -- Lee, Jun Young -- Lee, Minji -- Surh, Charles D -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 19;351(6275):858-63. doi: 10.1126/science.aac5560. Epub 2016 Jan 28.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Academy of Immunology and Microbiology, Institute for Basic Science, Pohang, Republic of Korea. Department of Integrative Biosciences and Biotechnology, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Republic of Korea. ; Academy of Immunology and Microbiology, Institute for Basic Science, Pohang, Republic of Korea. Department of Integrative Biosciences and Biotechnology, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Republic of Korea. Division of Developmental Immunology, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antigens/immunology ; Diet ; Dietary Proteins/*immunology ; Dyspepsia/*immunology ; Gastrointestinal Microbiome/*immunology ; Germ-Free Life ; Immune Tolerance ; Immunity, Mucosal ; Intestine, Small/*immunology/*microbiology ; Lymphocyte Activation ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/*immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-08-16
    Description: Gold nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes have attracted substantial attention in recent years for their potential applications in photothermal therapy (PTT) as an emerging breakthrough in cancer treatment. Herein, a hybrid nanomaterial of gold nanostars/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was synthesized by two-step reduction via the control of several synthetic conditions such as the reducing agent, pH value, concentration and ratio of reagents. The material shows good biocompatibility and high photothermal conversion efficiency, demonstrating its applicability in PTT. The lack of surfactant in the synthesis process made the hybrid nanomaterial cell-friendly, with no effects on viability in vitro . The MWCNT/gold nanostars hybrid nanomaterial presented 12.4% higher photothermal efficiency than gold nanostars alone and showed a 2.4-fold increase over gold nanospheres based on a heating test under 808 nm laser irradiation. Moreover, the MWCNTs/gold nanostars at low concentration (0.32 nM) exhibited remarkably improved photothermal cancer cell-killing efficacy, which may be attributed to the surface plasmon resonance absorption of the gold nanostars and the combined effects of enhanced coupling between the MWCNTs and gold nanostars. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the MWCNTs/gold nanostars developed herein show prominent photothermal value, and thus may serve as a novel photothermal agent for cancer therapy.
    Keywords: biomaterials
    Electronic ISSN: 2054-5703
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Royal Society
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The genus Methylocystis belongs to the class Alphaproteobacteria , the family Methylocystaceae , and encompasses aerobic methanotrophic bacteria with the serine pathway of carbon assimilation. All Methylocystis species are able to fix dinitrogen and several members of this genus are also capable of using acetate or ethanol in the absence of methane, which explains their wide distribution in various habitats. One additional trait that enables their survival in the environment is possession of two methane-oxidizing isozymes, the conventional particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) with low-affinity to substrate (pMMO1) and the high-affinity enzyme (pMMO2). Here, we report the finished genome sequence of Methylocystis bryophila S285, a pMMO2-possessing methanotroph from a Sphagnum -dominated wetland, and compare it to the genome of Methylocystis sp. strain SC2, which is the first methanotroph with confirmed high-affinity methane oxidation potential. The complete genome of Methylocystis bryophila S285 consists of a 4.53 Mb chromosome and one plasmid, 175 kb in size. The genome encodes two types of particulate MMO (pMMO1 and pMMO2), soluble MMO and, in addition, contains a pxmABC -like gene cluster similar to that present in some gammaproteobacterial methanotrophs. The full set of genes related to the serine pathway, the tricarboxylic acid cycle as well as the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway is present. In contrast to most described methanotrophs including Methylocystis sp. strain SC2, two different types of nitrogenases, that is, molybdenum–iron and vanadium–iron types, are encoded in the genome of strain S285. This unique combination of genome-based traits makes Methylocystis bryophila well adapted to the fluctuation of carbon and nitrogen sources in wetlands.
    Electronic ISSN: 1759-6653
    Topics: Biology
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-03-17
    Description: Changes in splicing are known to affect the function and regulation of genes. We analyzed splicing events that take place during the postnatal development of the prefrontal cortex in humans, chimpanzees, and rhesus macaques based on data obtained from 168 individuals. Our study revealed that among the 38,822 quantified alternative exons, 15% are differentially spliced among species, and more than 6% splice differently at different ages. Mutations in splicing acceptor and/or donor sites might explain more than 14% of all splicing differences among species and up to 64% of high-amplitude differences. A reconstructed trans -regulatory network containing 21 RNA-binding proteins explains a further 4% of splicing variations within species. While most age-dependent splicing patterns are conserved among the three species, developmental changes in intron retention are substantially more pronounced in humans.
    Print ISSN: 1355-8382
    Electronic ISSN: 1469-9001
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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